G35: Kayardild

AIATSIS code: 
G35
AIATSIS reference name: 
Kayardild

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Name
Thesaurus heading language
Thesaurus heading people
ABN name
-
ABS name
Kayardild
Horton name
Gayardilt
Ethnologue name
Kayardild
ISO 639-3 code
gyd
Tindale name
Kaiadilt
Tindale (1974)
Kaiadil, ['Ka:radil(t)] (a modern Lardiil version of name), ['Kaija:dil] (a modern Janggal version), Gajadild, Gaiardilt, Maldanunda (['mala] = ['malda] = sea), Malununde, Malununda (original Lardiil tribe name for Bentinck Island, Maldanunda (original Janggal name for), Marlanunda, Mardunung, Madunun, 'Bentinck Islanders.'
O'Grady et al (1966)
Malununda
Glottocode
kaya1319
Other sources
Guyadilt (uniting church mission cassette) [Evans 1995:8]
Synonyms
Gayardilt, Kaiadilt, Bentinck Islanders, Gaiardilt, Gaja, dilt, Gajadild, Gajardild, Gajardilt, Gaya, Gayadilt, Kaiadil, Kaiadilt Madunun, Maldanunda, Malununda, Malununde, Mardunung, Marlanunda, Gayardild, Guyadilt, Madunun, Kayardilt
Comment
Comments: 

Kayardild is a language from northern Australia in the Tangkic language family. The Tangkic languages have genetic affiliation with the non-Pama Nyungan languages of Arnhem Land, but long term contact with Pama Nyungan languages led to morphological and lexical borrowing, and a 'typological convergence ... away from the non-Pama-Nyungan headmarking, prefixing type to a fairly typical Pama-Nyungan type ... (Evans, 1995: 30, 38). Evans uses the spelling Kayardild for the language and Kaiadilt for the people (1995:8).

Blake defines the Tangkic group (Yukulta (G34) Lardil, G38, Kayardild G35) as non-Pama-Nyungan languages, based on the pronoun forms (1988:39).

Languages from the North Wellesley Islands and adjoining mainland include Kayardild (G35), Yangkaal G37, Yukulta G34 and Lardil G38 which O'Grady - Voegelin - Voegelin (1966) classified in the 'Tangkic' group (tangka means 'person' in all four languages). Evans classifies Kayardild (G35) and Yangkaal G37 as dialects of one language (South Wellesley), while Yukulta G34 and Nguburindi G19 are dialects of a separate, but closely related language (Mainland). Lardil (Mornington Island) is further removed,having a historical relationship with Proto-Tangkic (1995:9, 12).

 

References: 
  • Blake, Barry. 1988. Redefining Pama-Nyungan in Evans, Nicholas and Steve Johnson (eds) Aboriginal Linguistics. Armidale: University of New England.
  • Evans, Nicholas. 1995. A grammar of Kayardild, with historical-comparative notes on Tangkic: Mouton Grammar Library 15. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
  • Harvey, Mark. 2008. Non-Pama-Nyungan Languages: land-language associations at colonisation. AILEC 0802.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
QLD
Location information: 

The Kaiadilt's traditional lands comprised the South Wellesley Island: Bentinck Island, Sweeers Island, several smaller islands, and sometimes Allen Island (Evans 1995:9).

The South Wellesley Islands extending west to Allen Island which was shared with Yangkaal (Harvey ASEDA 802). Bentinck Island and surrounding reefs; west to Allen Island (Tindale 1974).

 

Maps: 
-
Links
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Nick Evans, Frank Woolston, Erich Round, Louis Goldstein
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt70
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS8
2005Estimate8
2006Census25
2011Census3
2016Census8

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Large (more than 200 pages) 4
Text Collection Small (20-100 pages) 2
Grammar Large grammar (more than 200 pages) 4
Audio-visual More than 10 3
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 

Evans, Nick. 1995. A grammar of Kayardild: with historical-comparative notes on Tangkic. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Dictionary: 

Evans, Nick. 1992. Kayardild dictionary and thesaurus: a vocabulary of the language of the Bentinck Islanders, North-west Queensland. Melbourne: University of Melbourne.

Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan Tangic   Kayardild  
Dixon (2002)   TANGKIC SUBGROUP* Kayardild/Yukulta subgroup* Kayardild Kayardild Evans (1995a) further dialect: Yangkaal
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan Tangic   Gayardilt  
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Tangic   Gayardilt  
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan   Tangic Gayardild  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Tangkic   Gayardilt  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Tangkic   Gayardilt