A55: Palyku

AIATSIS code: 
A55
AIATSIS reference name: 
Palyku

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Name
ABN name
-
ABS name
Palyku/Nyiyaparli
Horton name
Palyku
Ethnologue name
Nijadali (Palyku)
ISO 639-3 code
-
Tindale name
Bailgu
Thesaurus heading language
Palyku language A55
Thesaurus heading (old)
Palyku language (A55) (WA SF51-09)
Tindale (1974)
Bailko (valid alternative), Pailgu, Pailgo, Baljgu, Balju, Pal'gu, Bailju, Bailgo, Balgu, Palgu, Balju, Balgoo, Boolgoo, Pulgoe, Mangguldulkara (western name for them), Paljarri (a term in their social organization).
O'Grady et al (1966)
Bailgu, Balgu, Balgoo, Pulgoe, Boolgoo
Glottocode
-
Other sources
Balgo, Pulgo [<ozbib>Dixon 2011:41$7367</ozbib>]
Synonyms
Palyku/Nyiyaparli, Mangguldulkara, Paljarri, Nijadali, Bailgu, Binigura, Niabali, Nyiyaparli, Paljgu, Baialja, Bailgo, Bailju, Bailko, Balgo, Balgoo, Balgu, Baligu, Baljgu, Balju, Boolgoo, Pailgo, Pailgu, Palgu, Palgoe, Pulgo, Pulgoe, Balygu
Comment
Comments: 
Originally, von Brandenstein (1972) described Palyku as the name of a people and Nyiyaparli A50 as the name of the language they speak. Since then, many researchers have considered Palyku and Nyiyaparli to be very closely related languages or the same language. According to Dench (1998), 'all work to date suggests that Nyiyaparli and Palyku are different names for what is essentially the same language'. Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre was, as of 2008, conducting research to find out whether this is in fact the case. Their 2012 edition of the Nyiyaparli dictionary describes 'Palykutharri' (being the language of the Palyku A55) as a dialect of Nyiyaparli A50, along with Nankilakuthu A108, Martuyitha A109 and Ngulipartu (presumably Ngurlipartu A72, though this relationship is not confirmed elsewhere). The dictionary contains details about these dialect including their locations. The ABS does not make a distinction between Palyku and Nyiyaparli A50 and thus census data may combine information on both of these.
References: 
  • Dench, Alan. 1998. What is a Ngayarta language? A reply to O'Grady and Laughren. Australian Journal of Linguistics, vol. 18, no. 1, 91 - 107.
  • Dixon, Sally. 2011. How to read and write Pilbara languages. South Hedland: Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre.
  • Sharp, Janet & Nicholas Thieberger. 1992. Bilybara: Aboriginal languages of the Pilbara region. Port Hedland: Wangka maya, The Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Tribal boundaries in Aboriginal Australia. University of California Press/ANU Press.
  • von Brandenstein, Carl G. 1972. Narratives from the north-west of Western Australia in Njijapali, language of the Paljgu. MS 2435.
  • Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre. 2008. Nyiyaparli dictionary 2008. South Hedland: Wangka Maya PALC.
  • Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre. 2012. Nyiyaparli dictionary with English-Nyiyaparli wordlist and topic wordlists. South Hedland: Wangka Maya PALC.
Status: 
Potential data
Location
State / Territory: 
WA
Location information: 

Upper Fortescue River east of Goodiadarrie Hills; north to the scarp of Chichester Range and to the Nullagine River divide; at Roy Hill and east to the western headwaters of the Oakover and Davis rivers (Tindale 1974). Contemporary location: Nullagine (Dixon 2011:41).

Maps: 
  • Tindale, Norman. 1974. Tribal boundaries in Aboriginal Australia. Canberra: Division of National Mapping, Department of National Development.
  • Dench, Alan. 1995. Martuthunira, a language of the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Geoff O'Grady, Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates50
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS10?
2005Estimate3
2006Census3
2011Census8
2016Census5

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Less than 20 pages 1
Text Collection Less than 20 pages 1
Grammar None 0
Audio-visual 1-10 2
Manuscript note: 
4 short sentences by Bates
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 
-
Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan South-West Nijadali Nijadali (Palyku)  
Dixon (2002)   GASCOYNE RIVER TO PILBARA AREAL GROUP Pilbara/Ngayarta areal group Palyku (or Mangguldulkara or Paljarri) Palyku (or Mangguldulkara or Paljarri)/Njiyapali
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan South-West   Balygu  
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan South-West Wati/Western Desert Balygu  
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Western Desert Proper Wati Baljgu  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Southwest (or Nyungic) Ngayarda Bailko (Palygu, Nyiyapali)  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Southwest Ngayarda Bailko