D34: Bigambul

AIATSIS code: 
D34
AIATSIS reference name: 
Bigambul

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Name
ABN name
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ABS name
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Horton name
Bigambul
Ethnologue name
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ISO 639-3 code
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Tindale name
Bigambul
Thesaurus heading language
Bigambul language D34
Thesaurus heading (old)
Bigambul language (D34) (Qld SH56-01)
Tindale (1974)
Bigabul (valid variant used by one informant), Pikambul, Bigambal, Bigambel, Bee-gum-bul, Bigumble, Pikumbul, Pikumpal, Pikambal, Pikum-bul, Pickum-bul, Pickimbul, Pickumble, Picum-bul, Pikumbil, Begumble (['biga] = ['pika] == yes), Peekumble, Pickumbil, Picumbill, Preagalgh, Wigal-wollumbul, Wee-n' gul-la-m' bul.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Bigambul, Pikambul, Bigambal, Beegumbul, Pikambal, Pikumbul, Pickumbil
Glottocode
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Other sources
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Synonyms
Bigambal, Pikambul, Bee gum bul, Beegumbul, Begumble, Bigabul, Bigambel, Bigumble, Bigunbil, Peekumble, Pickimbul, Pickum bul, Pickumbil, Pickumble, Picum bul, Picumbill, Pikambal, Pikum bul, Pikumbal, Pikumbil, Pikumbul, Pikumpal, Preagalgh, Pregalgh, Wee n gul la mbul, Wigal wollumbul, Bigumbil, Wee n gul la m bul
Comment
Comments: 
The classification of Bigambul is uncertain. Among the classifications included in this database, Dixon (2002) groups Bigambal (D34) together with the Bundjalung E12 languages while others classify it as a 'Wiradjuric' language. Gambuwal D29 and Bigambal have a 75% cognate count indicating a possible dialectal relationship; they are grouped with other east Queensland border languages Guyambal D35 and Yugambal E11 by Wafer and Lissarrague (2008:332-4).
References: 
  • Condamine Alliance Australia. 2013. Languages of the Condamine. Toowoomba, Qld: Condamine Alliance. (L 040.003/4)
  • Dixon, R. M. W. 2002. Australian languages: their nature and development: Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • MacPherson, John. 1904. Ngarrabul and other Aboriginal tribes. Pt. 2 Distribution of tribes. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales vol. 29, pt. 4, pp. 677-684. (RS 50/5)
  • Mathews, Robert Hamilton. 1902. Languages of some native tribes of Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria. Journal of the Royal Society of NSW 36:135-190.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Wafer, Jim & Amanda Lissarrague. 2008. A handbook of Aboriginal languages of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NSW
Location information: 
East of Nindigully, Qld., on Weir and Moonie rivers, north to Tara; at Talwood, Qld.; on MacIntyre River from east of Boomi to Texas; at Yetman, Boggabilla, and Middle Creek, N.S.W. (Tindale 1974). ... on the Weir and Macintyre Rivers, Queensland; they adjoin the Yualeai on the east (Mathews 1902:143) Bonshaw; Yetman and Boggabilla (On the MacIntyre River); Callandoon and the Weir River - in part (in Queensland). Ridley includes within his Pikimbul region the MacIntyre River, Callandoon and Weir River. Matthews gives Goondiwindi (MacIntyre R.) and Weltown (Weir R., Queensland) as belonging to the Pikumbil Tribe (MacPherson 1904:679). ... on the Queensland-NSW border around the Macintyre and Weir Rivers and extending north towards Millmerran. (Condamine Alliance Australia 2013).
Maps: 
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Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
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People: 
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Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listLess than 20 pages1
Text CollectionNone0
GrammarA few articles1
Audio-visualNone0
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available (vocabulary)
Grammar: 
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Dictionary: 
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Classification
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)
Dixon (2002)CENTRAL EAST COAST GROUPBigambalBigambal
Wurm (1994)
Walsh (1981)
Oates (1975)Pama-NyunganWiradjuricMiyalBigumbil
Wurm (1972)Pama-NyunganWiradjuricMiyalBigumbil
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)Pama-NyunganWiradjuricMiyalBigumbil