D45: Wadjalang / Dharawala

AIATSIS code: 
D45
AIATSIS reference name: 
Wadjalang / Dharawala

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Name
ABN name
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ABS name
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Horton name
Dharawala
Ethnologue name
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ISO 639-3 code
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Tindale name
Wadjalang
Thesaurus heading language
Wadjalang / Dharawala language D45
Thesaurus heading (old)
Wadyalang language (D45) (Qld SG55-05)
Tindale (1974)
['mari] = man, ['al:a] = no.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Wadjalang
Glottocode
-
Other sources
Dharawala, Wadjalany [Breen 1990:68]
Synonyms
Dharawala, Nguri, Wadjelang, Wadjalany
Comment
Comments: 
This language was previously known as Wadjalang (D45). Prior to his 1990 publication 'Salvage studies of Western Queensland Aboriginal languages' Breen was skeptical of the status of Wadjalang as a language name, noting his reservations about names based on the verb wadja 'to go' and that present-day informants did not recognise the name. Breen (1971:13-14) concludes that the name should be retained in the absence of any other information and tentatively suggests that the word list supplied by Ahern in Curr (1886) may be Wadjalang (though he later changes his opinion (Breen 1990:69)). Oates and Oates (1970), relating Breen's remark that informants do not recognise the name Wadjalang, claim that he suggests Marganj D42 may have been spoken in the territory allocated to Wadjalang. The source of this information, however, is not apparent. Breen 1971 flags a possible link between Wadjalang and Bidjara (p. 14), and Breen 1990 notes that the territory occupied by speakers of the 'Blackall, Yangeeberra, Mt Enniskillen' (tentative) dialect falls, in part, within the area Tindale associates with Wadjalang (p. 69). Breen (1990:68) uses Dharawala (rendering of Tarawalla in Breen's phonemic orthography) in preference to Tindale's Wadjalang as the language name on the basis of the phonotactic implausibility of Wadjalang. Breen takes his data from Powell's 'Tarawalla dialect' word list in Curr (1886) and unpublished Wadjalang wordlists collected by Tindale. Dixon (2002) uses both Wadjalang and Dharawala. In the Thesaurus, Dharawala is used as the language name and Wadjalang as the people name.
References: 
  • Breen, Gavan. 1971. Aboriginal languages of Western Queensland. In Linguistic Communications 5, 1-88. Melbourne: Monash University.
  • Breen, Gavan. 1990. Salvage studies of Western Queensland Aboriginal languages: Pacific Linguistics B-105. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Curr, Edward Micklethwaite. 1886-87. The Australian race: its origin, languages, customs, place of landing in Australia, and the routes by which it spread itself over that continent. Melbourne: John Ferres, Government Printer; London: Trübner.
  • Dixon, R. M. W. 2002. Australian languages: their nature and development: Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Oates, William J., and Lynette F. Oates. 1970. A revised linguistic survey of Australia: Australian Aboriginal Studies 33, Linguistic Series 12. Canberra: AIAS.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
QLD
Location information: 
Headwaters of Bulloo and Langlo rivers from Quilpie north to Northampton Downs, near and east of Blackall, and to Tambo; east to Cheepie, Burrandilla, and Nive Downs; at Ambathalla and Minnie Downs (Tindale 1974).
Maps: 
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Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
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People: 
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Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Less than 20 pages 1
Text Collection None 0
Grammar A few articles 1
Audio-visual None 0
Manuscript note: 
not available
Grammar: 
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Dictionary: 
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Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)
Dixon (2002) GREATER MARIC GROUP Maric proper subgroup Wadjalang, Dharawala Bidjara* Breen (1973, 1981a) further dialects: Gungabula, Marrganj, Gunja, Wadjigu, Gayiri, Dharawala, Wadjalang, Wadjabangayi, Yiningayi, Yanjdjibara, Mandandanjdji, Guwamu, Gunggari, Ganulu, Gabulbara, Wadja, Nguri
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan Maric Wadjalang
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Maric Mari Wadjalang
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Maric Mari Wadjalang
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Pama-Maric Mari Wadjalang
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Pama-Maric Mari Wadjelang