E20: Duungidjawu

AIATSIS code: 
AIATSIS reference name: 


Thesaurus heading language
Thesaurus heading people
ABN name
Duungidjawu language
ABS name
Horton name
Waka Waka (Dungidau)
Ethnologue name
Wakawaka [Duungidjawu]
ISO 639-3 code
Tindale name
Dalla (Djunggidjau, Dungidau)
Tindale (1974)
Dalla (['dal:a] = staghorn fern; said to be language term), Ngoera, Jarbu ('inlanders'-name given by Undanbi and other coastal tribes), Jinibara (a suggested alternative name that is of hordal type), Djunggidjau
O'Grady et al (1966)
Other sources
Dungidjau (Capell 1963), Dungidau (Tindale 1974, Winterbotham 1957), Dunggija (Holmer 1983) [Kite and Wurm 2004:4]
Wakawaka, Dungidjau, Dalla, Ngoera, Jarbu, Jinibara, Jinibarra, Djunggidjau

Kite and Wurm describe Duungidjawu (E20) as a Waga-Waga E28 dialect, the others being Wuli-Wuli E89, Dala E25, Waga-Waga (which indicates this is used as both a language name and a dialect name), Barunggam D40, Nalbo E90, Djagunda E27and Giabal D41 (2004:4).

Tindale treats Dungidau as a people name and dialect of Dalla E25; he lists Djunggidjau (E20) as an alternative name of Dalla E25 (1974:166).

Jones describes the Jinibara group as 'an alliance of four groups: Nalbo E90, Dalla (Dallambara) E25, Dungidau (E20) and Garumnga E88' (1990:9).



  • Jones, Stephen. 1990. A submerged history: Baroon, Aborigines and white invasion. Maleny, Qld.: Stephen Jones.
  • Kite, Suzanne, and Stephen A. Wurm. 2004. The Duungidjawu language of southeast Queensland: grammar, texts and vocabulary: Pacific Linguistics 553. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Steele, John. 1984. Aboriginal pathways in southeast Queensland and the Richmond River. St Lucia: University of Queensland Press.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Winterbotham, Lindsay. Gaiarbaus story of the Jinibara tribe of south east Queensland (and its neighbours), typescript. (MS 45).
State / Territory: 
Location information: 

West from Caboolture to Gunundjin (At the junction of the Stanley and Brisbane Rivers), then northwest up the Brisbane River to Moore. From there it went northeast to the Jimna Range and then southeast through Mount Kilcoy and Villeneuve to Durundur. The bourndary then went in a line back down through Woodford to Caboolture (Winterbotham 1957 Gaiarbaus story of the Jinibara tribe of south east Queensland (and its neighbours) as quoted by Kite and Wurm 2004:5).

... the area bounded by the Garumngar to the south and the Dallambara to the north; the western boundary (with the Dungibara) was the Brisbane River, while the eastern boundary (with the Nalbo) was a line from Woodford to Caboolture (Steele 1984:254).

... starting from the junction of the Stanley and Brisbane Rivers called by them Gunundjin, which means hollow place, it followed the Brisbane River up on its east bank to Mooretown (Wung:ar), from there cut across country eastwards to the Jimna Range (dji:mna means a place of leeches). It then went in a south easterly direction, through Mount Kilcoy, Willeneuve, and Neurum to Durundur which in the native language means witchetty grub. From there it continued in an almost straight line to Cabloolture (cabul means carpet snake), and from there went straight west to the starting point (Winterbotham, MS 45, p. 9).


Suzanne Kite, Stephen Wurm
Indigenous organisations: 
Year Source Speaker numbers

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Less than 20 pages 1
Text Collection Medium (100-200 pages) 3
Grammar Small grammar (100-200 pages) 3
Audio-visual 1-10 2
Manuscript note: 

Kite, Susanne and Wurm, Stephen. 2004. The Duungidjawu language of southeast Queensland: grammar, texts and vocabulary: Pacific Linguistics 553. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan Waka-Kabic Miyan Wakawaka [Duungidjawu] Wakawaka [dialects: Duungidjawu, Wagawaga. Related to Wuliwuli, Barunggam, Gayabara, Muringam, which may be extinct.]
Dixon (2002)   CENTRAL EAST COAST GROUP Waka-Gabi areal group Duungidjawu Waga-Waga Kite (2000) further dialects: Wuli-Wuli, Dala, Djakunda, Barunggam, Duungidjawu
Wurm (1994)          
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Waka-Kabic Miyan Duungidjawu Waga [dialects: Wagawaga (Wakawaka), Dalla, Ngalbu (Nalbo), Dungibara, Garumga, Duungidjawu]
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Waka-Kabic Miyan Dungidjau  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Waka-Kabic Miyan Dungidjau  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Waka-Kabic Miyan Dungidjau