G37: Yangkaal

AIATSIS Code: 
G37
AIATSIS Reference name: 
Yangkaal

tab group

Name
ABN Name
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ABS Name
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Horton Name
Gananggalinda
Ethnologue name
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ISO 639-3 code
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Tindale name
Janggal
Thesaurus heading
Yangal language (G37) (Qld SE54-01)
Tindale (1974)
Njangga:l (valid variant), Janggaral (valid variant), Janggura, Janggaralda (name of language), Jangaralda (term applied by Lardiil), Nemarang (modern name partly of European origin), Balumbant (= people from the west, contrasting with a term Lilumbant applied to the Lardi:l and Jokula).
O'Grady et al (1966)
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Glottocode
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Other sources
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Synonyms
Gananggalinda
Balumbant
Janggal
Janggaral
Janggaralda
Janggura
Mangaralda
Nemarang
Njangga:l
Jangaralda
Comment
Language comment
Languages from the North Wellesley Islands and adjoining mainland include Yangkaal (G37), Kayardild G35, Yukulta G34 and Lardil G38 which O’Grady – Voegelin – Voegelin (1966) classified in the ‘Tangkic’ group (tangka means ‘person’ in all four languages). Evans classifies Yangkaal (G37) and Kayardild G35 as dialects of one language (South Wellesley), while Yukulta G34 and Nguburindi G19 are dialects of a separate, but closely related language (Mainland). Lardil (Mornington Island) is further removed, having a historical relationship with Proto-Tangkic (1995:9, 12). The Tangkic languages have genetic affiliation with the non-Pama Nyungan languages of Arnhem Land, but long term contact with Pama Nyungan languages led to morphological and lexical borrowing, and a 'typological convergence ... away from the non-Pama-Nyungan headmarking, prefixing type to a fairly typical Pama-Nyungan type ... (Evans, 1995: 30, 38). The code G37 was assigned to Nemarang in Oates and Oates (1970:107), while Oates (1975:304) treats Nemarang as an alternative name of Lardil G38. Tindale lists Nemarang as an alternate name for Janggal (G37), describing it as a modern name partly of European origin (1974:170). The association between Yangkaal language and Gananggalinda people is uncertain. The name Gananggalinda (G37) is used for people from the Dumaji region on the coast. Doomadgee, an Aboriginal community in the Gulf country, is 100 km west of Burketown. It was named after Dumaji, a sandy coastal mound in the land held by the Gananggalinda people . Part of the location provided by Harvey for Yangkaal ('The immediate coast between Bayley Point and Point Parker', see Location) roughly coincides with the area marked Gananggalinda on the AIATSIS Map (Horton, 1994). However Evans (above) describes Yangkaal as a language from South Wellesley.
References

Evans, Nicholas. 1995. A grammar of Kayardild, with historical-comparative notes on Tangkic: Mouton Grammar Library 15. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Harvey, Mark. 2008. Non-Pama-Nyungan Languages: land-language associations at colonisation. AILEC 0802.
Oates, Lynette F. 1975. The 1973 supplement to a revised linguistic survey of Australia. Armidale: Armidale Christian Book Centre.
Oates, William J., and Lynette F. Oates. 1970. A revised linguistic survey of Australia: Australian Aboriginal Studies 33, Linguistic Series 12. Canberra: AIAS.
Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.

Status
Confirmed
Location
State
QLD
Location information
... on Forsyth Island (Evans 2001:151). The immediate coast between Bayley Point and Point Parker, north to include the southern half of Denham Island. East to Allen Island, which was shared with Kaiadilt (Harvey ASEDA 802). Forsyth Island in the Gulf of Carpentaria, and the mangrove-lined shore on the mainland opposite, as far west as Cliffdale Creek. Forsyth Island today is known to Morn-ington Islanders as Nemi Island, after one of the native inhabitants whose adopted name was Edward Namie (Tindale 1974).
Maps
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Catalogue
Search MURA the AIATSIS catalogue, for items about this language
Speakers
Speaker table
Speaker NILS table
1-19 years20-39 years40-59 years60+
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NILS endangerment grade
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Documentation
Document Score: 
3
Documentation table: 
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listLess than 20 pages1
Text CollectionLess than 20 pages1
GrammarNone0
Audio-visualLess than 11
Manuscript Note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 
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Programs
Activities: 
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People: 
Ken Hale, Nick Evans
Classification
Classification table: 
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)
Dixon (2002)TANGKIC SUBGROUP*Kayardild/Yukulta subgroup*YangkaalKayardild Evans (1995a) further dialect: Yangkaal
Wurm (1994)
Walsh (1981)
Oates (1975)
Wurm (1972)
O'Grady, Voegelin & Voegelin (1966)