S40: Bangerang

AIATSIS code: 
AIATSIS reference name: 


Thesaurus heading language
Thesaurus heading people
ABN name
ABS name
Horton name
Ethnologue name
ISO 639-3 code
Tindale name
Pangerang, Kwatkwat
Tindale (1974)
Panggarang, Pangorang, Pangurang, Pine-gorine, Pine-go-rine, Pinegerine, Pinegorong, Bangerang, Banjga-ranj, Pallaganmiddah, Jabalajabala (['jabala] means no; name applied to western Pangerang hordes), Yaballa, Ya-bula-yabula, Waningotbun (horde at Kotupna), Maragan (perhaps Maraban, horde name), Owanguttha (horde name), Yurt (name applied by northerners and the Ngurelban, ['jurta] = ['juta] = no) Yoorta, Moiraduban (horde name), Moitheriban for Pangerang. Quart-Quart, Emu Mudjug tribe, Pikkolatpan (where ['pik:or] = emu) for Kwatkwat.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Pangerang, Dadarawa, Bandjalang
Other sources
Pandraing, Pandurang, Pinegorine, Baingeraing [Curr 1965:103] Whroo [Lloyd 1985:1]
Bandjalang, Bangarang, Banjerang, Banjgaranj, Dadarawa, Jabalajabala, Luntera, Maragan, Moiraduban, Moitheriban, Owanguttha, Pallaganmiddah, Panderang, Pangerang, Panggarang, Panggerang, Pangorang, Pangurang, Pine go rine, Pine gorine, Pinegerine, Pinegorine, Pinegorong, Waningotbun, Wongatpan, Ya bula yabula, Yaballa, Yoorta, Yurt, Bandjerang, Eastern Banjgaranj, Kwatkwat, Pandraing, Pandurang, Baingeraing, Eastern Banygarany, Banjga ranj, Yurt Yoorta, Moitheriban for Pangerang, Quart Quart, Emu Mudjug tribe, Pikkolatpan for Kwatkwat

Locke (in Smythe, 1878:333) describes a tract of land called Kotoopna (~Kotupna) 'in the native language ... extending nearly across the angle formed by the Goulburn and Murray' belonging 'to a small tribe ... called Pangorang (S40) or Waningotbun'.

The identity of Bangerang with respect to Yorta Yorta D2 has been a matter of some debate. Curr (1887) details the Bangerang groups, noting that they all spoke closely related dialects and always referred to themselves collectively as Bangerang (vol. 3, p. 569). However, several of the clan names attributed to Bangerang in Curr (1887) are linked to Yorta Yorta in James (1897), as noted by Bowe and Morey (1999:8). According to Bowe and Morey (1999:3), the term Bangerang refers to some of the Yorta Yorta speaking groups.

Sommer (in Bowe 2002:107) says that the early linguistic literature suggests that Bangerang was both a specific name for two groups, the Wongatpan and the Towroonban, as well as a cover term for ten 'bands' including speakers of Yoda yoda D2 and Yabala yabala S38.

Tindale (1974), placing 'Jotijota' D2 on the New South Wales side of the border, includes Yoorta Yoorta / Yurt among the alternative name for his Pangerang (S40), identifying it as an exonym applied by 'northerners and the Ngurelban'. Clark (1990) treats Bangerang as an alternative name for Yorta Yorta, as do Wafer and Lissarrague (though noting that this may be only partly applicable).

Eira (2014 p.c.) says that, from the current perspective, Bangerang and Yorta Yorta are both people names and the names of very closely related language varieties, the distinct identities of which are highly salient to the contemporary communities. Previously the code S40 included not only Bangerang but Kwat Kwat S97 and Waveroo S89. Waveroo is a variant of Waywurru S89 so this has been removed from S40. Further, although the identity of Kwat Kwat is uncertain, it is treated as a distinct language variety in Clark 1996 (as a dialect of Waywurru), Bowe 2002 (as 'a dialect, or a set of dialects, of the macro-language grouping Bangerang/Yorta Yorta'), and Bowe and Morey 1999 (as a 'subgroup of the Yorta Yorta / Bangerang macro group'). Consequently, Kwat Kwat now has its own code, S97.


  • Bowe, Heather. 2002. Linguistics and the Yorta Yorta native title claim. In Nash & Henderson (eds), Language in native title, pp. 101-159. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.
  • Bowe, Heather and Stephen Morey. 1999. The Yorta Yorta (Bangerang) language of the Murray Goulburn including Yabula Yabula. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Clark, Ian. 1990. Aboriginal languages and clans: an historical atlas of western and central Victoria, 1800-1900: Monash Publications in Geography, 37. Melbourne: Department of Geographical and Environmental Science, Monash University.
  • Clark, Ian. 1996. Aboriginal language areas in Victoria: a reconstruction. Melbourne: Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages.
  • Clark, Ian. 1993. Aboriginal spatial organization in northeast Victoria: a preliminary investigation. (PMS 5339).
  • Clark, Ian. 2005. Aboriginal language areas in Victoria - a reconstruction: a report to Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages. Melbourne: Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages.
  • Curr, Edward. 1887. The Australian race: its origin, languages, customs, place of landing in Australia, and the routes by which it spread itself over that continent, vol. 3. Melbourne: John Ferres, Govt Printer.
  • Curr, Edward. 1965. Recollections of squatting in Victoria: then called the Port Phillip District (from 1841 to 1851) (2nd ed.) Reprint of 1st ed. 1883. Melbourne : Melbourne University Press.
  • James, Thomas Shadrach. 1897. Letter to R.H. Mathews, September 27. R.H. Mathews Papers, National Library of Australia MS8006 Series 2. (Not in AIATSIS collection.)
  • Locke, William. 1878. Notes on the language and customs of the tribe inhabiting the country known as Kotoopna. In The Aborigines of Victoria, Vol.2, Appendix G, 333-338. Ed. Smythe, BR. Melbourne: John Ferres, Govt.Pr.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Wafer, Jim and Amanda Lissarrague. 2008. A handbook of Aboriginal languages of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
State / Territory: 
Location information: 

In the broad valley of the lower Goulburn west to the Murray River east and west of Shepparton; at Wangaratta, Benalla, and Kyabram; south to Toolamba and Violet Town. Not at Albury as stated incorrectly in the 1940 edition. There were eight well-defined hordes the names of which generally terminated in [-pan] or [-ban]. Curr and Mathews both show that Pangerang hordes extended a little way downriver from Echuca on both banks; these western hordes were called Jabalaljabala by downriver tribes. Three of Curr's Pangerang hordes are separated as the Kwatkwat. The hordes shown by Curr north of the Murray River belong to other tribes. Color plates 43-46 are relevant (Tindale). Curr (1833, 1887, vol.3, p566ff) describes the use of the term Bangerang to refer primarily to the Wongatban and Towroonban clans who lived in the Lower Moira (on the Victorian side of the Murray River); however, he explains that the term was also used more generally by other tribes to refer to the total group now referred to as Yorta Yorta (Bowe and Morey 1999: 3).

Indigenous organisations: 
Year Source Speaker numbers

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Small (20-100 pages) 2
Text Collection Less than 20 pages 1
Grammar Small grammar (100-200 pages) 3
Audio-visual None 0
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available (vocabulary) - unclear status

Bowe, Heather and Morey, Stephen. 1999. The Yorta Yorta (Bangerang) language of the Murray Goulburn including Yabula Yabula: Pacific Linguistics C154. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.


Bowe, Heather and Morey, Stephen. 1999. The Yorta Yorta (Bangerang) language of the Murray Goulburn including Yabula Yabula: Pacific Linguistics C154. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)          
Dixon (2002)          
Wurm (1994)          
Walsh (1981)          
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Yotayotic-Banygaranyic   Eastern Banjgaranj  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Yotayotic-Banyyaranyic   Eastern Banygarany (Bangerang)?  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Bandjerangic   Bandjerang