Previously Bunara A69 was treated as an alternative name for Ngardi. Tindale (1974) lists Bunara as an alternative name for Ngardi (as well as for Kokatja A68). However, both Oates and Oates (1970) and Oates (1975) treat Bunara and Ngardi as separate language varieties, and Capell (1940:425, 429) supplies distinct sets of language data for Ngadi (A121) and Buna:ra A69. Given this, Ngardi and Bunara A69 are now treated as distinct languages and a new record has been created for Bunara in AUSTLANG. The code A69 was originally assigned to Bunara; this is reinstated and the new code (A121) is assigned to Ngardi.
Some sources link Ngardi to Warlpiri C15, either as an alternative name (Oates and Oates 1970) or a dialect (Capell 1963). However, Capell (1940:429) gives language data for 'Ngadi' (contrasting with 'Ngardi' in Capell 1963) and the location he describes does not overlap with his 1963 location for Waljbiri C15. Laughren (2013 p.c.) makes a distinction between Ngardi and Ngardilypa C38, the latter being a dialect of Warlpiri, which she locates around 'the Granites about Tanami' (1996:2). This location appears to be between that of Ngardi (A121) and Warlpiri C15. Other sources link Ngardi to Kukatja A68. Watson, in Kleinert and Neale (2000:46), says that Ngardi and Kukatja are now referred to as Kutjungka ('at one') to express their common cultural heritage. Honeyman (2005:22) notes that many Ngardi speakers come from the Balgo area in which Kukatja is one of the primary languages.
West of Walmanba, about WA border. East of Lake Gregory. (Oates 1975:133) ... about Lewis's Creek, immediately south of Sturt's Creek (Capell 1940:425).
The Ngardi speakers lived in an area roughly bounded by Balgo and the southern shore of Lake Gregory in the north, the NT-WA border in the east, the Mangkayi area (north of Lake Mackay) in the south and just east of the Canning Stock Route in the west (Cataldi ASEDA 0737).
Sandhill country west of the Tanami track, from Chilla Well, the Granites, and Gardiner Range extending west into Western Australia at Ima Ima (n.n. Ngaima ngaima) on Sturt Creek, to Balgo Hill (and the Pallotine Mission), also to Manggai, an unidentified water; they go south to near Milidjipi (129°40' E x 22°3'S) and to Tekkari, north of Lake Mackay (129°1'E x 21°50'S). These are two known native waters in otherwise unnamed country; at Lakes Hazlett, Lucas, White, and Wills. Some important but as yet unlocalized waters include Pinbin (near Lake Lucas), Lerauli, Ngandalara and Pinkatjana (near Emily Springs), Pindiri, Tjaldjiwan, Inindi (near Lake White), and Rabi (between Lakes Lucas and White). Their southern territory extends into large areas covered by mulga scrub (Tindale 1974).
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Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.
Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).
Ennever, Thomas Blake. 2018. Nominal and pronominal morphology of Ngardi : a Ngumpin-Yapa language of Western Australia. University of Queensland, M Phil thesis. MS 5296.
Ennever, Thomas. 2021. A Grammar of Ngardi. As spoken by F. Tjama, M. Yinjuru Bumblebee, D. Mungkirna Rockman, P. Yalurrngali Rockman, Y. Nampijin, D. Yujuyu Nampijin, M. Mandigalli, K. Padoon, P. P. Napangardi, P. Lee, N. Japaljarri, M. Moora, M. Mudgedell and P. Smith. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.
Honeyman, Tom. 2005. Topic and focus in Ngardi, University of Sydney: BA (Hons).
Cataldi, Lee. n.d. A Dictionary of Ngardi, University of Sydney.
Cataldi, Lee. n.d. Ngardi vocabulary and notes. (AILEC 0737).