C23: Gunindirri

AIATSIS code: 
C23
AIATSIS reference name: 
Gunindirri

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Name
ABN name
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ABS name
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Horton name
Gunindiri
Ethnologue name
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ISO 639-3 code
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Tindale name
Kunindiri
Thesaurus heading language
Gunindirri language C23
Thesaurus heading (old)
Gunindiri language (C23) (NT SE53-07)
Tindale (1974)
Goonanderry, Leecundundeerie, Cundundeerie, Ku-nandra.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
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Other sources
Goonanderry [<ozbib>Basedow 1907:3$7584</ozbib>] Gunindirri, Eastern Garrwa [<ozbib>Harvey 2009:195$6524</ozbib>]
Synonyms
Gunindiri, Kunindiri, Cundundeerie, Goonanderry, Kunandra, Kundindiri, Leecundunderrie, Gundirri, Kunindirri, Kunindiri; Cundundeerie, Leecundundeerie, Gunindiri; Kundindiri, Ku nandra
Comment
Comments: 
Kunindirri (C23) is a dialect of Garrwa N155, which has two known varieties: Heavy Garrwa, also called Eastern Garrwa or Gunindirri / Kunindirri (C23) and Light Garrwa also called Western Garrwa N155 (Mushin, 2012:5). Gunindiri (C23), Garrwa N155 and the neighbouring language Waanyi G23 belong to the Garrwan language family, located in the Gulf of Carpentaria and is the 'only family which has explicitly been analysed as having an indeterminate or intermediate status' regarding its classification as non-Pama Nyungan or Pama Nyungan (Harvey, 2009:197-198). Harvey argues 'the evaluation of the overall evidence shows Garrwan to be a PN family, within the terms of the criteria for the hypothesised opposition' (2009:198). In contrast, earlier analyses by Blake (1990) and Evans (2005) classify Garrwan as non-Pama Nyungan (in Mushin, 2012:6).
References: 
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Breen, Gavan. 2003. The Barkly: Wanyi and Garrwa comparative data. In The Non-Pama-Nyungan languages of northern Australia: comparative studies of the continent's most linguistically complex region, ed. Nicholas Evans, 425-462. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Basedow, Herbert. 1907. Anthropological notes on the western coastal tribes of the Northern Territory of South Australia. Royal Society of South Australia -- Transactions 31:1-62.
  • Harvey, Mark. 2008. Non-Pama-Nyungan Languages: land-language associations at colonisation. AILEC 0802.
  • Harvey, Mark. 2009. The Genetic Status of Garrwan. Australian Journal of Linguistics 29(2):195-244.
  • Martin, Richard J.2015. Reconfiguring indigeneity in the mainland Gulf country: Mimicry, mimesis, and the colonial exchange of difference. Australian Journal of Anthropology, 26(1). pp 55-73. DOI: 10.1111/taja.12124
  • Mushin, Ilana. A grammar of (Western) Garrwa. Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.
Status: 
Potential no data
Location
State / Territory: 
NT
Location information: 
Barkly Tableland along headwaters of Calvert, Robinson, and Nicholson rivers; southwest to Anthony Lagoon; at Creswell Downs and Fish Waterhole (Tindale 1974) Tindale's map seems to show that the northern boundary of Kunindirri territory is the divide between the watershed of the Robinson and the westernmost part of the watershed of the Calbert (to the north) and the watersheds of the Nicholson River and Cresswell Creek (to the south).... It may be that Kun(in)dirri occupied a band of country stretching from the headwaters of the Cresswell and Nicholson across to Wollogorang and Westemoreland. My map reflects this uncertainty (Breen 2003:426) Along the Robinson and Calvert Rivers, south of the Karrawa (Basedow 1907:3) The reasonably certain general associations of Gunindirri were to Wollogorang and Westmoreland. Eastward limits: Just to the east of Westmoreland, there is a change of affiliations to Ganggalida. Southward limits: China Wall - north of China Wall is Gunindirri, south of China Wall is Wanyi. Westward limits: These are uncertain. The Creswell Downs area was associated with either Gunindirri or Wanyi, but there is no direct evidence as to which. Northward limits: There is no definite information on the northward limits to the association of Gunindirri (Harvey ASEDA 802)
Maps: 
  • Tindale, Norman. 1974. Tribal boundaries in Aboriginal Australia. Canberra: Division of National Mapping, Department of National Development.
  • Breen, Gavan. 2003. The Barkly: Wanyi and Garrwa comparative data. In The non-Pama-Nyungan languages of northern Australia: comparative studies of the continent's most linguistically complex region, ed. N Evans, 425-462. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Harvey, Mark. 2008. Non-Pama-Nyungan Languages: land-language associations at colonisation (ASEDA 802).
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
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People: 
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Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listNone0
Text CollectionNone0
GrammarNone0
Audio-visualNone0
Manuscript note: 
not available
Grammar: 
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Dictionary: 
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Classification
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)
Dixon (2002)
Wurm (1994)
Walsh (1981)
Oates (1975)UnclassifiedGunindiri
Wurm (1972)
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)