S37: Taungurung

AIATSIS code: 
AIATSIS reference name: 


Thesaurus heading language
Thesaurus heading people
ABN name
ABS name
Horton name
Ethnologue name
ISO 639-3 code
Tindale name
Tindale (1974)
Ta-oungurong, Taguwuru, Thagunworung, Thagu-wurru, Daguwura, Taguniorung, Targunwurung, Tongwo-ronga, Jhongworong, Tauonyirong, Darngoorang, Ngurai-alum (language name shared with Ngurelban), Gnurellean, Yawang-illam, Yowang-illam (ta:gun = no), Butherabaluk (eastern horde), Bootheraboolok, Nerboolok (horde at Kilmore), ? Moogulum-buk, Mogullum-bitch.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Thagunworong, Thaguwurru, Daguwuru, Taguniourung, Dhauhurtwurru, Ngooraialum, Nguralngbula, Mouralungbula, Gnurellean, Ooralim, Butherbaluk, Yawangillam, Yauungillam, Yowangillam
Other sources
Thagungwurrung [Blake & Reid 1995] Daung wurrung, Tonnurong, Torongolong, Daung.ger.rong, Tar.goon.ger.rong, Tar.goong gor rong, Tarng.goo.rong, Taungoorong, Tarng.hoo.wrong, Tarnboorung, Taung Boorong, Tongeoorong, Tar doon gerong, Taung hoo wrong, Tar doon ger rong, Tardoongerong, Tardoon.ger.ong, Tarngorong, Darn goo rong, Tandoongerong, Tar-doon-yen-ongs, Tongueorong, Tongworong, Tongeworong, Wong-wo-rong, Tong-worong, Thongworong, Thong worong, Tongorong, Toungourong, Toungurrong, Townurong, Toungurong, Tangowrong, Targunwurong, Taungerong, Darngooung, Darngooran, Dangourong, Thong-wo-rong, Dunrgaorong, Tarngoorong, Tindoongerrang, Toingerang, Tarngaane (Mistranscription), Tarngaune, Taungurong, Tarngoorong, Tardoongerong, Darngerong, Tar doon gerong, Darngorong, Taoungurong, Dan-go-rang, Tongworonga, Thongroong, Thorgworong, Taoungarong, Darngorang, Darngerong, Dardoongererong (mistranscription), Dardoongerongs, Taounyirongs, Tarngorongs, Taouringurong, Darngoorangs, Damgourong, Joimgbert, Taoungbert, Taomgurong, Taomjurong (mistranscription), Taounyrong, Taoungerong, Dangourong, Taounegerong, Targoongerong, Taoungerong, Tarounwerong, Trnghoorong, Tar doong er rong, Tar.doon.lger.rong, Dar-goong ger.rong, Dargoongherong, Dargoongerong, Jhongworong, Taoungurong, Taonngurong, Ta-unggurong, Thagun-worung, Thargunwurung, Thagunwurung, Thagun-wurung, Thagun worung, Thagung-wurung, Thagung wurung, Thaguwurru, Thagu-wurru, Thagunworung, Thagungwurru, Thagunworung, Taungurong, Taguniourung, Taunguron, Tagunwuru, Daguwuru, Taungerong, Thagungurong, Taungurong, Taguwuru, Daguwura, Taguniorung, Tauonyirong, Taourngurong, Taoungaroung, Taungurong, Tong-worrong, Thong-worrong, Dareoongrong, Tarounwarong, Jhongwurrong, Daungwurung [Clark 1990:370]
Dhagung wurrung, Taungurong, Daundwurrung, Minjambuta, Thagunworong, Thaguwurru, Daguwuru, Taguniourung, Dhauhurtwurru, Ngooraialum, Nguralngbula, Mouralungbula, Gnurellean, Ooralim, Butherbaluk, Yawangillam, Yauungillam, Yowangillam, Thagawurung, Thagungwurrung, Woiwuru, Ta oungurong, Taguwuru, Thagunworung, Thagu wurru, Daguwura, Taguniorung, Targunwurung, Tongwo ronga, Jhongworong, Tauonyirong, Darngoorang, Ngurai alum, Yawang illam, Yowang illam, Butherabaluk, Bootheraboolok, Nerboolok, Moogulum buk, Mogullum bitch

Blake describes this as a dialect of the same language as Boonwurrung S35 and Woiwurrung S36 (1991:31). Blake says the language has no name but he refers it as Woiwurrung (thus using Woiwurrung as both dialect and language name) and also calls it 'the Melbourne language'. He refers to speakers of these dialects as Kulin, noting that this is a narrower use of the term than is usual. Blake (1991:30, 49) also indicates a possible additional dialect in the northern Thagungwurrung area, Ngoorra S83, which he says takes its name from the Ngoora-yilam clan. Blake reports that this dialect is identified by Barwick (1984:125), but says it may simply have been an alternative name for Thagungwurrung.

From historical sources Blake includes the clan names Nira-balak (Nerboolook), Buthera-baluk (Boother(boolok)), Yauung-illam-baluk, Yirun-illam-baluk, Waring-illam-baluk, Natrakboolook, Look-yellam, Moomoomgoondeet (Moommoom-conedeet) / Mooer-wil-lum (Moom-millum), Ngooraialum, Nooraialum-balluk, Benbedora-balluk (Pimpadoor), Gunung-yellam (1991: 47-49).

Oates (1975:189) subsumes S36 (Woiwurung in Oates and Oates 1970) under S37 (Daungwurung in Oates and Oates 1970), and assigns Woiwurung as a standard name for S37.


  • Barwick, Diane. 1984. Mapping the past: an atlas of Victorian clans 1835-1904. Pt 1. Aboriginal history, vol. 8, nos 1-2, pp. 100-131. (p BAR)
  • Blake, Barry. 1991. Woiwurrung, the Melbourne language. In Handbook of Australian languages vol. 4, eds R. M. W. Dixon and B. J. Blake, 30-122. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Clark, Ian. 1990. Aboriginal languages and clans: an historical atlas of western and central Victoria, 1800-1900: Monash Publications in Geography, 37. Melbourne: Department of Geographical and Environmental Science, Monash University.
  • Clark, Ian. 2005. Aboriginal language areas in Victoria - a reconstruction: a report to Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages. Melbourne: Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages.
  • Oates, Lynette F. 1975. The 1973 supplement to a revised linguistic survey of Australia. Armidale: Armidale Christian Book Centre.
  • Oates, William J. & Lynette F. Oates. 1970. A revised linguistic survey of Australia: Australian Aboriginal Studies 33, Linguistic Series 12. Canberra: AIAS.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
State / Territory: 
Location information: 

north of Woiwurrung territory separated by the Great Dividing Range. Their land embraded the headwaters of the Goulburn River and extended downstream (north) to the Broken River and to the east it took in the valley of the Campaspe (Blake 1991:48). ... the Broken, Delatite, Goulburn, Coliban, and Campaspe watersheds (Clark 1990:370) Goulburn River valley upstream from the northern vicinity of Seymour at Mitchelltown. Near Violet Town, northeast to Mansfield, south to Kilmore. At Alexandra; west to hills southeast of Heathcote (Tindale 1974).



The Daungwurrung Language Program has been running with the current project officer since March 2004.

Taungurung Clans Aboriginal Corporation
Indigenous organisations: 
Year Source Speaker numbers

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Less than 20 pages 1
Text Collection None 0
Grammar A few articles 1
Audio-visual None 0
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available (vocabulary) - unclear status

Blake, Barry. 1991 Woiwurrung: the Melbourne language. In The handbook of Australian languages vol 4. eds. RMW Dixon and B Blake, 30-122. Oxford University Press.


Blake, Barry. 1991 Woiwurrung: the Melbourne language. In The handbook of Australian languages vol 4. eds. RMW Dixon and B Blake, 30-122. Oxford University Press.

Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)          
Dixon (2002)   WEST VICTORIAN AREAL GROUP Kulin subgroup* Dhagung-wurrung Wuy-wurrung Blake (1991) further dialects: Bun-wurrung, Dhagung-wurrung
Wurm (1994)          
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Kulinic Kulin Thagawurung Wuywurrung [dialects: Wuywurrung, Bunwurung, Thagawurung]
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Kulinic Kulin    
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Kulinic Kulin Woiwuru (Taungurong, Daungwurung, Dhaguwuru)  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Kulinic Kulin Taungurong