S64: Dharug / Darug

AIATSIS code: 
S64
AIATSIS reference name: 
Dharug / Darug

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Name
ABN name
Dharug language
ABS name
Other Australian Indigenous Languages, nec (Dharuk etc.)
Horton name
Dharug
Ethnologue name
-
ISO 639-3 code
-
Tindale name
Daruk
Thesaurus heading language
Dharug / Darug language S64
Thesaurus heading (old)
Dharug / Daruk / Darug language (S64) (NSW SI56-05)
Tindale (1974)
Dharruk, Dharrook, Dhar'rook, Darrook, Dharug, Broken Bay tribe.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Oharruk, Dharrok
Glottocode
-
Other sources
Darrkinyung [Wafer and Lissarrague 2008] Dharruk (Mathews 1903), Dharoog [Kohen & Steele 2009:223-4]
Synonyms
Sydney, Dharuk, Other Australian Indigenous Languages, Dharuk etc, Daruk, Oharruk, Dharrok, Darrkinyung, Dharruk, Dharrook, Darrook, Broken Bay tribe
Comment
Comments: 
Attenbrow (2002) distinguishes Coastal S61 (sometimes referred to as Eora) and Hinterland dialects of Dharug (S64). Kohen and Steele (2009:223-24) differentiate between coastal and inland Dharug varieties, noting that Parramatta appears to have been the boundary between the two. 'Dharug' is used by the community to refer to their language, in contrast to 'Darug' (without the 'h') to refer to the people. (Richard Green via Cat Kutay p.c. 2013)
References: 
  • Attenbrow, Valerie. 2002. Sydney's Aboriginal past: investigating the archaeological and historical records Sydney: UNSW Press.
  • Kohen, Jim & Jeremy Steele. 2009 [1993]. An introduction to the Dharug language. In Blue Mountains Dreaming: the Aboriginal heritage, eds E. Stockton and J. Merriman, 223-228. Lawson: Blue Mountains Education and Research Trust.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NSW
Location information: 
Coastal dialect/s - the Sydney Peninsula (north of Botany Bay, south of Port Jackson, west to Parramatta), as well as the country to the north of Port Jackson, possibly as far as Broken Bay [this covers Eora and Kuringai] Hinterland dialect -on the Cumberland Plain from Appin in the south to the Hawkesbury River in the north; west of the Georges River, Parramatta, the Lane Cove River and Berowra Creek (Attenbrow 2002:34). ... extending along the coast to the Hawkesbury River, and inland to what are now the towns of Windsor, Penrith, Campbelltown, and intervening towns (Mathews 1903, in Kohen & Steele 2009:224).
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
Darug Custodian Aboriginal Corporation is working on the establishment of community language centre in order to run language classes and support he Primary and High School (2007).
People: 
William Dawes, Jim Kohen, Jakelin Troy, W. Tench, D. Southwell, R.H. Mathews, J. Hunter, D. Collins, John Rowley
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS12?
2005Estimate0
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Small (20-100 pages) 2
Text Collection None 0
Grammar A few articles 1
Audio-visual None 0
Manuscript note: 
-
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 
Troy, Jakelin. 1994. The Sydney language. Canberra: Australian Dictionaries Projects, AIATSIS.
Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)
Dixon (2002) SYDNEY SUBGROUP* Dharuk Dharuk possible further dialect names: Gamaraygal, Iora
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Dharuk
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Iyora Dharuk Dharuk [dialects: Guringgai (Kuringgai), Iyora]
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Iora Dharuk
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Kuri Dharuk
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Yuin Daruk