A33: Mantjintjarra

AIATSIS code: 
AIATSIS reference name: 


Thesaurus heading language
Thesaurus heading people
ABN name
ABS name
Horton name
Ethnologue name
ISO 639-3 code
Tindale name
Tindale (1974)
Mandjindjara (valid extension of name), Mandjindji, Mangundjara (variant pronunciation by a member of the tribe), Mandjindjiwongga, Manjinjiwonga, Mantjila, Man-gula, Kalgonei, Kalgoneidjara (language name applied by Ngadadjara to this tribe and to the Wenamba), Nanggar-angku (lit. 'hostile men,' a term applied by the Pitjandjara, as also to the Ngalea), Mandshindshi [sic].
O'Grady et al (1966)
Mandjindjara, Manjinjiwonga
Other sources
Mandjindja, Jindi, Kalgonei, Kalgoneidjara, Madu, Maduwongga, Mandijildjara, Mandildjara, Mandjihjarra, Mandjiidjarra, Mandjildara, Mandjildjara, Mandjildjarra, Mandjiltjara, Mandjiltjarra, Mandjintjarra, Mandjindjara, Mandjindji, Mandjindjiwongga, Mandshindshi, Mangingiwonga, Manginji, Mangula, Mangundjara, Manjiljara, Manjiljarra, Manjinjiwonga, Mantjila, Mantjildjara, Mantjiltjara, Manyjilyjarra, Nanggarangku, Man gula, Nanggar angku

Manyjilyjarra A51.1 and Mantjintjarra (A33) are names of some form of the Western Desert language A80. However, it is unclear whether these names refer to the same variety or not.

Previously Manjiljarra A51.1 was included in the Thesaurus heading for Mandjindja (A33).


  • Thieberger, N. 1993. Handbook of the Western Australian Aboriginal Languages South of the Kimberley Region. Pacific Linguistics Series C-124. Canberra: RSPAS, ANU.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
State / Territory: 
Location information: 

Sandhill country south of Warburton Range (not extending to this range), commencing at Papakula (Babba-goola Rockhole on maps); west to Lakes Gillen and Thros-sell; south to Amy Rocks and Saunders Range; east to Lenga:na, a ['wati 'walji 'tjukur] place probably east of Sydney Yeo Chasm; southeast to Wardadikanja (Tindale 1974).


  • Tindale, Norman. 1974. Tribal boundaries in Aboriginal Australia. Canberra: Division of National Mapping, Department of National Development.
Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981): 

Konin (A35 ) in Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981).


Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:
Nalada (?), Ngaatjatjara (Glass & Hackett) (from /ngaatja/ 'this'), Nga:dadjara (T), Ngadadjara , (AIAS, de Graaf), Ngada (-jara) (-wanga) (AIAS), Ngadatjara (AC,SAW,O'G), Ngarga (?), Ngatatara (Roheim), Nyadadjara (Worms)
Dialects: (A. Glass)
Rawlinson Ngaatjatjarra (closer to Ngaanyatjarra)
Blackstone Ngaatjatjarra
Further possible dialect:
Mantjintja (see Oates 1973)
Alternative spellings:
Mandjindja (Elkin), Mandjindja(-djara) (AIAS), Mandjindja(-wanga) (AIAS), Mandjindjindji (Berndt, Davidson), Munjinda (Daisy Bates)
Classification of the language:
Western Desert Group, Wati subgroup
Identification codes:
Oates '73: 56.4b, 56.4c (Mantjintja)
AIAS: A43, A33 (Mantjintja)
Capell: A38 (both Ngaatjatjara and Mantjintja)
Present number and distribution of speakers:
Traditionally probably from Wingellina (Winkilina) to Jameson Range, and possibly to Rawlinson Ranges (Glass & Hackett).
Mantjintja traditionally south of Warburton Ranges (Davidson), far east of Laverton, north of Great Victoria Desert, south of Livesay Range (Herrman).
Now at Warburton.
Black, 1979 --
People who have worked intensively on the language:
Amee Glass
Practical orthography:
Word lists:
Grammar or sketch grammar:
Material available on the language:
de Graaf, Mark. 1968. The Ngadadara at the Warburton Ranges. 146p. tbls. ts. Perth. (AIAS restricted use)
Douglas, W.H. 1964. An Introduction to the Western Desert Language. Oceania Linguistic Monographs No. 4. (Revised). [1st edition, 1958] Sydney: Oceania (University of Sydney).
---------- 1971. Dialect differentiation in the Western Desert -- a comment. Anthroplogical Forum 3.1(November), 79-82.
Gould, R.A. 1968. Preliminary report on excavations at Puntutjarpa rockshelter, near the Warburton Ranges, Western Australia. Archaeology & Physical Anthropology in Oceania 3.3:161-185. pls. diags. map. Appendix 1: Ngatatjara text - a partial account of the totemic goanna tradition at Puntutjarpa, by Glass & Hackett (with interlinear transcription).
Miller, Wick R. 1971. Dialect differentiation in the Western Desert language, 61-78. A reply to Douglas's comment, 83-85. Anthropological Forum 3.1(November).
Mountford, C.P. 1938. Gesture language of the Ngada tribe of the Warburton Ranges, Western Australia. Oceania 9.2:152-155. diags.
ten Raa, Eric & S.T. Woenne. 1974. Research Dictionary of the Western Desert Language of Australia. Department of Anthropology, University of Western Australia. (I 11988)
Tindale, N.B. 1931-1937. Vocabulary of Pitjandjara, the language of the natives of the Great western Desert. Adelaide. 138p. ts. (some words of Nga:dadjara)
---------- 1933. Journal of an anthropological expedition to the Mann and Musgrave Ranges, north west of South Australia, May-July 1933... 745p. + suppl. notes. ts., ms. (2830 vocab. entries in Pitjandjara, Pintubi, Ngalia, Kukatja and Ngadadjara)
---------- 1935. Journal of a visit to the Warburton Range, Western Australia. Jul-Sept. 515p. ts., ms. (vocabulary data for Ngadadjara, Nana, Mandjinda, Nangatadjara tribes)
---------- 1951. Second visit to Ooldea, to study the Aborigines. Apr. 1951. 85p. ts., ms. (vocabulary of 90 additional words in Ngalea, Pitjandjara and Ngadadjara)
---------- 1936. Legend of the Wati Kutjura, Warburton Ranges, Western Australia. Oceania 7.2:168-185. diags. maps. (Songs with texts in Ngadadjara with interlinear translation.)
---------- 1963. Journal of a visit to the Rawlinson Range area in the Great Western Desert. Oct-Nov 1963. 227p.+suppl. notes. Ms. (Vocabularies in separate books for Nakako, Ngadadjara and
---------- 1966. Journal of a trip to Western Australia in search of tribal data. Mar-Apr. 1966. 350p.+suppl. data. Ms. (Distribution data on Ngadadjara (of Teka-teka), Kalamaia, and 95 other tribes.)
---------- 1974. Aboriginal Tribes of Australia. Los Angeles: Unversity of California Press, and Canberra: A.N.U. Press. (p.14ff has kinship terms, etc.)
Literacy material:

Kathy Menning (comp.) and David Nash (ed.) 1981. © IAD Press

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledges IAD Press for permission to use this material in AUSTLANG.

Indigenous organisations: 
Year Source Speaker numbers

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list None 0
Text Collection Less than 20 pages 1
Grammar None 0
Audio-visual None 0
Manuscript note: 
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)          
Dixon (2002)          
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan South-West   Mandjindja  
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan South-West Wati/Western Desert Mandjindja  
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Western Desert Proper Wati Mandjindja  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Southwest (or Nyungic) Western Desert Language Mandjindja  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Southwest Wati Mandjindja