A66: Walmajarri

AIATSIS Code: 
A66
AIATSIS Reference name: 
Walmajarri

tab group

Name
ABN Name
Walmajarri language
ABS Name
Walmajarri
Horton Name
Walmatjarri
Ethnologue name
Walmajarri
ISO 639-3 code
wmt
Tindale name
Walmadjari
Thesaurus heading
Walmajarri / Walmatjarri language (A66) (WA SE51-16)
Tindale (1974)
Walmajari (valid eastern pronunciation), Walmad-jeri, Walmade're, Wolmadjari, Walmajeri, Wolmaijari, Wulumari, Wolmeri, Wolmera, Walmaharri, Walmaharry, Wolmaharry, Wari?ari Pundur ('cannibal men' name given by Kokatja), Walmajai (Njikena pronunciation), Wulumarai, Wanmadjari, Tjiwaling (Mangala name), Dju-alin, Tjiwali, Tjiwalindja, Djiwalinja, Djuwali, Djiwalinj, Ngadjukura (language name), Pitangu (derogatory Kokatja name), Wanaeka, Waneiga, Ngainan (Birdsell in 1954 obtained this from measured natives nos. R1535 and R1541 of Christmas Creek as name of 'light Walmadjari' who were said to belong to an area halfway between Christmas Creek and Billiluna), Nganang, Warmala (general term applied to several Western Desert tribes).
O'Grady et al (1966)
Walmadjari, Warmala, Wulumari, Wolmera, Walmaharri, Wolmaharry
Glottocode
walm1241
Other sources
-
Synonyms
Walmatjarri
Walmadjari
Wolmatjeri
Wolmeri
Bililuna dialect
Djiwalinj
Djiwalinja
Djualin
Djuwali
Jiwarliny
Juwaliny
Ngadjukura
Ngainan
Nganang
Pitangu
Tjiwali
Tjiwalindja
Tjiwaling
Tjiwarlin
Walmadere
Walmadjeri
Walmadyari
Walmadyeri
Walmaharri
Walmaharry
Walmajai
Walmajari
Walmajeri
Walmatjari
Walmatjeri
Walmatjiri
Walmeri
Wanaeka
Waneiga
Wanmadjari
Warinari Pundur
Warmala
Wolmadjari
Wolmaharry
Wolmaijari
Wolmera
Wulumarai
Wulumari
Walmad jeri
Wariari Pundur
Dju alin
Comment
Language comment
There have been different reports on dialects of Walmajarri and it is not certain how many Walmajarri dialects exist. Hudson and Richards (2007 p.c.), who did extensive research on Walmajarri, recognise at least one dialect, namely Juwaliny A88. In their 1990 work, they identified Noonkanbah, which has been influenced by Nyikina K3, as a separate dialect but more recently Hudson and Richards (2007 p.c.) say that if this is a genuine dialect, the people have no name for it. Pililuna A89 is recognised as a dialect of Walmajarri by Dixon (2002) and SCAL (1981). According to Hudson and Richards (2007 p.c.), Pililuna A89 is the name of a station/community and they refer to it as the eastern dialect of Walmajarri, but people from the area just call themselves Walmajarri. Terry (1926:193) says the Boonarra group inhabits the region surrounding Bililuna station, and Capell (1940:423) says that the eastern dialect of Wolmeri (A66), known sometimes as Buna:ra A69, was spoken about Bililuna. Additionally, Walsh (1981) lists Nyanyany A90 and Oates (1975) lists Nyardi A91 as dialects of Walmajarri. Kolig (PMS 2255, p.2) says that Wolmadjeri (A66) has developed into a lingua franca in the southern Kimberley area and consequently many different varieties have developed with varying degrees of influence from other languages. He says that Wolmadjeri can be divided into 'light' Wolmadjeri or Djualin A88 spoken 'south of the lower Fitzroy River' (strongly mixed with Mangala A65), 'proper' Wolmadjeri 'south of Fitzroy Crossing, probably as far south as Godfrey's tank (Ganingara)', and 'heavy' or 'half' Wolmadjeri (or Njanjan A90) 'between the southeast of Bohemia Downs and Sturt Creek, with the southernmost point Gregory Salt Lake (Barugu)'.
References

Hudson, Joyce A. 1978. The core of Walmatjari grammar. Canberra AIAS/Atlantic Highlands NJ: Humanities Press.
Richards, Eirlys, and Joyce Hudson. 1990. Walmajarri-English dictionary: with English finder list. Darwin: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Dixon, R. M. W. 2002. Australian languages: their nature and development: Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kolig, Erich. Report on first period of field research in the Fitzroy Crossing area, South Kimberleys, Western Australia. (PMS 2255).
Nash, David, and Kathleen Menning. 1981. Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages. Alice Springs: Institute for Aboriginal Development.
Walsh, Michael. 1981. Maps of Australia and Tasmania. In Language atlas of the Pacific area Pt 1, eds S. A. Wurm and Shirô Hattori. Canberra: Australian Academy of the Humanities.
Oates, Lynette F. 1975. The 1973 supplement to a revised linguistic survey of Australia. Armidale: Armidale Christian Book Centre.

Status
Confirmed
Location
State
WA
Location information
The original tribal territory of the Walmatjari is the northern part of the Great Sandy Desert. The eastern Walmatjari lived along the northern part of the Canning Stock Route south-west and west of Balgo Hills Mission and the Western Walmatjari lived in the area south of Noonkenbah station. Movement out of the desert took place to the north, east and west and Walmatjari speaking people are now to be found on cattle stations along the Fitzroy River and Christmas Creek, as far as Derby in the west and Halls Creek in the east (Hudson 1978:2) Desert plateau south of the Fitzroy and Christmas Creek valleys from Noonkanbah, n.n. ['Kunkadea], east to Cummins Range; south on the line of the Canning Stock Route to Well 47, n.n. ['Kardalapuru], west from there to about 124°50'E; southwesternmost water used is Ngokanitjardu (unidentified but near 124°50'E x 20°30'S; see reference to this term also under Mangala tribe). In the south by traveling along tribal boundaries they met the Wanman at Munggakulu (perhaps the Adverse Well on maps). Their western boundary ran due north to Mount Fenton (Tindale 1974) Contemporary location: In towns and communities from Mulan (Lake Gregory) in the east along the Fitzroy River valley and as far west as Bidyadanga (La Grange) on the coast. (Richards & Hudson 1990:7)
Maps
  • Tindale, Norman. 1974. Tribal boundaries in Aboriginal Australia. Canberra: Division of National Mapping, Department of National Development.
  • Tsunoda, Tasaku. 1981. The Djaru language of Kimberley, Western Australia. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Catalogue
Search MURA the AIATSIS catalogue, for items about this language
Speakers
Speaker table
Oates 1973 Senate 1984 Schmidt 1990 Census 1996 Census 2001 NILS 2004 2005 estimate Census 2006
800-1000 1300 1000 853 596 1000 500 518
Speaker NILS table
7 7 8 8
1-19 years 20-39 years 40-59 years 60+
NILS endangerment grade
5
Documentation
Document Score: 
11
Documentation table: 
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Large (more than 200 pages) 4
Text Collection Small (20-100 pages) 2
Grammar Sketch grammar (less than 100 pages) 2
Audio-visual More than 10 3
Manuscript Note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 
Hudson, Joyce. 1978. The core of Walmatjari grammar. Canberra: AIAS.
Dictionary: 
Richards, Eirlys and Hudson, Joyce. 1990. Walmajarri-English dictionary: with English finder list. Darwin: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
Programs
Activities: 
In 2003 Wesley College in Melbourne embarked on a collaborative curriculum development project with the Fitzroy Valley Community, producing units of study in Bunuba and Walmajarri langauge and culture. The program has been successful and further collaborations are underway. (Oscar and Anderson 2009)
People: 
Eirlys Richards, Joyce Hudson, Kimberley Language Resource Centre
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Classification
Classification table: 
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan South-West Ngumbin Walmajarri Walmajarri [dialects: Djuwarliny (Juwaliny, Tjuwalinj)]
Dixon (2002)   NORTHERN DESERT FRINGE SUBGROUP Edgar Range to Victoria River subgroup* Walmatjarri Walmatjarri Hudson (1978) further dialects: Tjuwalinj, Pililuna
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan South-West   Walmadjari  
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan South-West Ngumbin Walmadjari Walmadjari [dialects: Walmadjari, Nyardi, Nyanyany]
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Northern Western Desert Type Ngumbin (Eastern Kimberleys) Walmadjari  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Southwest (or Nyungic) Ngumbin Walmatjari (Wolmeri)  
O'Grady, Voegelin & Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Southwest Ngumbin Wolmeri