C20: GURINDJI

AIATSIS code: 
C20
AIATSIS reference name: 
GURINDJI

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Name
ABN name
Gurindji language
ABS name
Gurindji
Horton name
Gurindji
Ethnologue name
Gurinji
ISO 639-3 code
gue
Tindale name
Korindji
Thesaurus heading language
Gurindji language C20
Thesaurus heading (old)
Gurindji language (C20) (NT SE52-08)
Tindale (1974)
Guirindji, Gurindji, Garundji, Koorangie
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
guri1247
Other sources
Synonyms
Gurindji, Kuurrinjtji, Gurinji, Kartangarurru, Korindji, Kurintji, Malngin, Tjial, Wandjira, Coorinji, Corringi, Garundji, Goarango, Guirindji, Gurindzi, Gurrinji, Guurindji, Koorangie, Kooringee, Kwarandji, Kwaranjee, We arr ung
Comment
Comments: 
McConvell (2006 p.c.) distinguishes two dialects of Gurindji, Eastern Gurindji C30 and Malngin K30, and says that Wanyjirra K21 and Kartangarurru C34 could also be treated as dialects of Gurindji.
References: 
  • Sutton, Peter. 1995. Country: Aboriginal boundaries and land ownership in Australia. Canberra: Aboriginal History Inc.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NT
Location information: 
Gurindji proper starts to the south of this (Jiyiljurrung of Wattie Creek or 'Seale River' area), although Jiyiljurrung descendants now speak Gurindji and are considered Gurindji (McConvell in Sutton 1995:109).
Maps: 
  • McConvell, Patrick. 1980. Hierarchical variation in pronominal clitic attachment in the eastern Ngumbin languages. In Contributions to Australian linguistics, eds B Rigsby and P Sutton, 31-117. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Nordlinger, Rachel. 1998. A grammar of Wambaya, Northern Territory (Australia). Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Catalogue
Links
Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981): 

Kalaako (A2 ) in Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981).

Gurindji

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:
Coorinji (Terry), Gurindji (AC,Hale,O'G,RLS,SAW,AIAS), Gurindzi, Gurintji, Gurinji, Kurintji (Peterson), Kuurrinyji (in practical orthography)
Classification of the language:
Northern Western Desert Type, Ngumbin subgroup
Identification codes:
Oates '73: 59.2
AIAS: C.020
Capell: C14
Present number and distribution of speakers:
Dagaragu (Wattie Creek), Kalakaringi (Wave Hill settlement), Limbunyah, Victoria River Downs, Pigeonhole, Lajamanu (Hooker Creek).
Milliken, 1972 -- 277
Black, 1979 -- 250
People who have worked intensively on the language:
Norman & Helen McNair, SIL, Kalkaringi;
Patrick McConvell, SAL continues analysis.
Practical orthography:
Experimental orthography undergoing final testing at Kalakaringi and Dagaragu.
Word lists:
Hale, Jones, McConvell, McNair.
Grammar or sketch grammar:
McNair ms.
Material available on the language:
Curnow, Ann. 1971. Notes on the phonology of Gurindji. 11p. xeroxed ts. SIL.
---------- 1971. Gurindji word list. 29p. ts. SIL. (AIAS categorised word list)
---------- & Velma J. Leeding. 1971. The Gurindji survey report. 9p. ts. SIL.
---------- 1971. Notes on the phonology and grammar of Gurindji. ms. Oct. 1971. SIL.
Hale, Kenneth L. 1959. Gurindji field notes. 122p. ms. Alice Springs.; xeroxed ts., M.I.T. (Ms 864,AIAS)
---------- Kurinytyi-English. 35p. xeroxed ms. (field notes word list)
Hudson, Joyce. 1973. Gurindji word list for a two-week survey (probably strongly influenced by Djaru). 12p. ts. SIL. (p10609, AIAS)
Jones, Alexander I. 1972. List of Gurindji words and meanings. 25p. xeroxed ts. University of Sydney. (AIAS) (about 645 words; English-Gurindji alphabetical)
---------- 1972. List of Gurindji words and meanings. 20p. (about 400 items)
---------- 1978. Form and meaning in an Australian language. Language and Speech 21.3:264-78. (p7811, AIAS)
Leeding, Velma. 1971. Grammatical observations on Gurindji. Oct-Nov. 1971. 36p. ms.
---------- 1971. Word lists: Gurindji or Mudbura. 4p. SIL. (p10708, AIAS)
---------- 1971. Gurindji and Ngarinman word lists. 15p. ts. SIL.
---------- 1971. Kinship - subsections for Gurindji, Wailbri and Negaliwuru. 4p. xeroxed ts. SIL.
McConvell, Patrick. 1974. Gurindji texts. ms. (pMs 1154,AIAS)
---------- 1976. The Aborigines of the northern Tanami area, Northern Territory. 22p. xeroxed ts. Darwin. (AIAS)
---------- 1980. Hierarchical variation in pronominal clitic attachment in the Eastern Ngumbin languages, in Australian Linguistic Studies. Papers in Australian Linguistics No. 13,
ed. by S.A. Wurm. Pacific Linguistics A.59 (89p. ts. draft 1976)
McNair, Norman & Helen. The core of Gurindji. ms.
---------- & ---------- 1977. Gurindji phonology. Data check paper. (preliminary draft no. 1) August. SIL.
---------- & ---------- 197?. Gurindji kinship terms and subsections. 3p. ts. SIL.
Meggitt, Mervyn J. 1955. Notes on the Malngjin and Gurindzi Aborigines of Limbunya, N.W. Northern Territory. Mankind 5.2:45-50.
Nash, David. (to appear) Warlpiri Preverbs and Verb Roots. In Work-Papers of SIL-AAB, ed, by Stephen Swartz. Berrimah, N.T.: Summer Institute of Linguistics. (lists Gurindji verb roots
supplied by McNair and McConvell)
Parrish, Lucy. 1980. Kuurrinyji word list. (Based on field notes by P. McConvell). 9p. ts. IAD.
Ray, Michael. 1976. Gurintji/Mutburra word list for a two-week survey. 8p. xeroxed ms. SIL.
Terry, Michael. 1926. A surgical operation as performed by the Boonarra tribe of northern Australia, and a short vocabulary of the languages of some northern Australian tribes. Man 26:193-194. pls. (short list of words from Mootburra, Coorinji, Manoo and Boonarra)
Literacy material:
McNair: experimental.

Kathy Menning (comp.) and David Nash (ed.) 1981. © IAD Press

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledges IAD Press for permission to use this material in AUSTLANG.

Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988): 

Dargudi (A56 ) in Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988).

8.14 Gurindji

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:
Coorinji (Terry), Gurindji (Capell, Hale, McConvell, O'Grady, Oates, Wurm, AIAS), Gurindzi, Gurintji, Gurinji, Koorangie (Thomas), Kooringoo, Kurindji, Kurintji (Peterson), Kuurrinyji (in practical orthography, according to McConvell, pers.comm.)
Classification of the language:
Northern Western Desert type, Ngumbin subgroup
Identification codes:
AIAS: C20
Oates 1973: 59.2
Capell: C14
Present number and distribution of speakers:
Dagaragu (Wattie Creek), Kalakaringi (Wave Hill settlement), Limbunyah, Victoria River Downs, Pigeonhole, Lajamanu (Hooker Creek).
Milliken (1972) - 277
Black (1979) - 250
McConvell (1985b) - cites a figure of approximately 500 Gurindji people, but does not indicate what proportion are speakers.
People who have worked intensively on the language:
Norman and Helen McNair, SIL, Kalkaringi
Patrick McConvell, since mid-1970s, Victoria River district, mainly at Dagaragu
Practical orthography:
Experimental orthography undergoing final testing at Kalakaringi and Dagaragu.
Word lists:
Curnow (1971), Hale (nd), Jones (1972a,1972b), Leeding (1971b,1971c), McNair (nd,197?), Nash (1982), Parrish (1980), Ray (1976), Terry (1926).
Textual material:
Kijngayari (1986), Lingiari (1986), McConvell (1974); McConvell (1985b) contains some textual excerpts.
Grammar or sketch grammar:
Leeding (1971a), McNair (1977,nd)
Material available on the language:
Curnow, A. 1971. Notes on the phonology of Gurindji. 11p. xeroxed typescript. SIL.
_____ .1971. Gurindji word list. 29p. typescript. SIL. (AIAS categorised word list)
Curnow, A. & Leeding, V.J. 1971. The Gurindji survey report. 9p. typescript. SIL.
_____ .1971. Notes on the phonology and grammar of Gurindji. manuscript. SIL.
Hale, K.L. 1959. Gurindji field notes. 122p. manuscript, Alice Springs; xeroxed typescript, MIT AIAS Ms 864.
_____ .nd. Kurinytyi-English. 35p. xeroxed manuscript. (field notes and wordlist)
Hudson, J. 1973. Gurindji word list for a two-week survey (probably strongly influenced by Djaru). 12p. typescript. SIL. AIAS pMs
Jones, A.I. 1972a. List of Gurindji words and meanings. 25p. xeroxed typescript. University of Sydney. (AIAS) (about 645 words; English-Gurindji alphabetical)
_____ .1972b. List of Gurindji words and meanings. 20p.
_____ .1978. Form and meaning in an Australian language. Language and Speech 21. 264-78.
Kijngayari, L.J. 1986. The Wave Hill strike. In Hercus, L. & Sutton, P. (eds), This is what happened: historical narratives by Aborigines. Canberra: AIAS. 305-311.
Leeding, V. 1971a. Grammatical observations on Gurindji. Oct-Nov. 1971. 36p. manuscript.
_____ .1971b. Word lists: Gurindji or Mudbura. 4p. SIL. (p10708, AIAS)
_____ .1971c. Gurindji and Ngarinman word lists. 15p. typescript. SIL.
_____ .1971. Kinship - subsections for Gurindji, Wailbri and Negaliwuru. 4p. xeroxed typescript. SIL.
Lingiari, V. 1986. Vincent Lingiari's speech. In Hercus, L. & Sutton, P. (eds), This is what happened: historical narratives by Aborigines. Canberra: AIAS. 313-315.
McConvell, P. 1974. Gurindji texts. manuscript. AIAS pMs 1154.
_____ .1976. The Aborigines of the northern Tanami area, Northern Territory. 22p. xeroxed typescript.
_____ .1977. The scope of 'again' in English and Gurindji. 28pp. xeroxed typescript.
_____ .1980. Hierarchical variation in pronominal clitic attachment in the Eastern Ngumbin languages. In Rigsby, B. & Sutton, P. (eds), Papers in Australian Linguistics No.13: Contributions to Australian linguistics. Canberra: PL, A-59. 31-117.
_____ .1982. Neutralisation and degrees of respect in Gurindji. In Heath, J., Merlan, F. & Rumsey, A. (eds), Languages of kinship in Aboriginal Australia. (Oceania Linguistic Monographs, 24) Sydney: University of Sydney. 86-106.
_____ .1983. "Only" and related concepts in Gurindji. Paper delivered to ANZUS conference, Auckland 1983. 41pp. xeroxed typescript.
_____ .1985a. The origin of subsections in northern Australia. Oceania 56. 1-33.
_____ .1985b. Domains and codeswitching among bilingual Aborigines. In Clyne, M. (ed.), Australia, meeting place of languages. Canberra: PL, C-92. 95-125.
McNair, N. & H. 1977. Gurindji phonology. Data check paper. (preliminary draft no.1). SIL.
_____ .197?. Gurindji kinship terms and subsections. 3pp. typescript. SIL.
_____ .nd. The core of Gurindji. manuscript.
Meggitt, M.J. 1955. Notes on the Malngjin and Gurindzi Aborigines of Limbunya, N.W. Northern Territory. Mankind 5. 45-50.
Nash, D. 1982. Warlpiri verb roots and preverbs. In Swartz, S. (ed.), Papers in Warlpiri grammar: in memory of Lothar Jagst. (Work-Papers of SIL-AAB, A-6) Darwin: SIL. 165-216.
Parrish, L. 1980. Kuurrinyji word list. 9pp. typescript. IAD. (Based on field notes by P. McConvell).
Ray, M. 1976. Gurintji/Mutburra word list for a two-week survey. 8p. xeroxed manuscript. SIL.
Terry, M. 1926. A surgical operation as performed by the Boonarra tribe of northern Australia, and a short vocabulary of the languages of some northern Australian tribes. Man 26:193-194.
Language programme:
None known
Language learning material:
McNair: experimental.
Literacy material:
McNair has produced some experimental literacy materials.
Danbayarri, D. & Bulngarri, B. (trs). 1982. Juwuwalijalu ngulu kuyaarla pirti nyangani. (This is how the Jews used to live.) Darwin: Wycliffe Bible Translators.

McGregor, William. 1988 Handbook of Kimberley Languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. © Author.

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledge William McGregor for permission to use his material in AUSTLANG.

Programs
Activities: 
Patrick McConvell is writing a grammer and dictionary. Felicity Meakins is doing research on Gurindji Kriol. They both also do research on child language acquisition of Gurindji speaking children.
People: 
Patrick McConvell, HelenMcNair, Norman McNair, Felicity Meakins, Katherine Regional Aboriginal Language Centre
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate250
1990Schmidt250
1996Census572
2001Census553
2004NILS175
2005Estimate-
2006Census592
2011Census534
2016Census405

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listLarge (more than 200 pages)4
Text CollectionSmall (20-100 pages)2
GrammarA few articles1
Audio-visualMore than 103
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 
McConvell, Patrick, Gurindji dictionary, ASEDA 0564.
Classification
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)Pama-NyunganSouth-WestNgumbinGurinjiGurinji [dialects: Malngin, Wanyjirra (Wandjirra)]
Dixon (2002)NORTHERN DESERT FRINGE SUBGROUPEdgar Range to Victoria River subgroup*Gurindji (Kuurrinjtji)Gurindji (Kuurrinjtji) McConvell (ms.a) further dialects: Wanjdjirra, Malngin, Wurlayi, Ngarinman, Pilinara; possibly also Kartangarurru
Wurm (1994)Pama-NyunganSouth-WestGurindji
Walsh (1981)Pama-NyunganSouth-WestNgumbinGurindji (Guurindji)Gurindji (Guurindji) [dialects: Eastern (Gurindji), Malngin, Western (Gurindji), Wanyjirra]
Oates (1975)Pama-NyunganNorthern Western Desert TypeNgumbin (Eastern Kimberleys)Gurindji
Wurm (1972)Pama-NyunganSouthwest (or Nyungic)NgumbinGurindji
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)Pama-NyunganSouthwestNgumbinGurindji