D71: Galali

AIATSIS code: 
D71
AIATSIS reference name: 
Galali

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Name
ABN name
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ISO 639-3 code
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Tindale name
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Thesaurus heading language
Galali language D71
Thesaurus heading (old)
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Tindale (1974)
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O'Grady et al (1966)
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Synonyms
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Comment
Comments: 
According to McDonald and Wurm (1979:1) and Wafer and Lissarrague (2008:287), there are two varieties of Galali, one which McDonald and Wurm refer to as Wa?kumara (Ga?ali) D71, associated with languages of the Wilson River and another, associated with the Bulloo River about which Breen has collected data (1971:13). The Bulloo River Galali (D30) is classified as a 'Karna-Mari fringe language ... a discontinuous group of languages, mostly poorly attested, scattered between Karnic and Mari languages but not showing much connection with either or with one another. The only one well attested is also the most remote geographically, Kalkutungu.' (Breen, 2007:180) McDonald and Wurm (1979:2) suspect that Galali D71 was originally from the Bulloo River but some speakers moved to the Wilson River where they adopted features of the Wilson River languages. Wa?kumara (Ga?ali) associated with the Wilson River D71 is very close to modern Wa?kumara L68 and Bundamara L26 (McDonald and Wurm 1979:1) and can thus be classified as a Karnic language (Bowern 2001:257; Wafer and Lissarrague 2008:287). Previously these two language varieties were conflated under the same code, D30, based on McDonald and Wurm's suspicion that they were originally the same. However, given that this is not established fact and that, synchronically, the two are sufficiently different to be classified as belonging to different language families, they are now distinguished in this database and the Thesaurus. Wafer and Lissarrague (2008:287) identify the Kalali data in Holmer's (1988) study of Punthamarra L26 as the Bulloo River variety (D30).
References: 
  • Breen, Gavan. 1971. Aboriginal languages of western Queensland. In Linguistic Communications 5, 1-88. Melbourne: Monash University.
  • Breen, Gavan. 2007. Reassessing Karnic. Australian Journal of Linguistics 27(2):175-199.
  • Bowern, Claire. 2001. Karnic classification revisited. In Forty years on: Ken Hale and Australian languages, ed. Jane Simpson, et al., 245-261. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Holmer, Nils Magnus. 1988. Notes on some Queensland languages: Pacific Linguistics D-79. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • McDonald, Maryalyce, and Stephen A. Wurm. 1979. Basic materials in Wangkumara (Galali): grammar, sentences and vocabulary: Pacific Linguistics B-65. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Wafer, Jim, and Amanda Lissarrague. 2008. A handbook of Aboriginal languages of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
Status: 
Potential data
Location
State / Territory: 
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Location information: 
Wilson River (McDonald & Wurm 1979:1).
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Catalogue
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People: 
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Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
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Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Language-dialect relationships
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