G2: Ulaolinya

AIATSIS code: 
AIATSIS reference name: 


Thesaurus heading language
Thesaurus heading people
ABN name
ABS name
Horton name
Wanggamanha (Lanima)
Ethnologue name
Pitta Pitta [Lhanima, Yurlayurlanya]
ISO 639-3 code
Tindale name
Tindale (1974)
Ulaolinja, Ju:lanja (valid alternative), Ju:lanji (valid variant), Yoolanlanya, Ulaolinya, U-la-linya, U-la-linye, U-lay-linye, Uluonga, Jura.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Other sources
Ulla Yelin Ya (Curr), Ulaolinya, Yuleolinya (both Roth), Ulaolinja (Tindale), Yoolanlanya (Mathews), Ulla Yellin Ya (Curr), U-la-linya (W.G. Field), Uluonga (C.W. Mackie), Julajulanja, Lanima, and Lhanima [Blake and Breen 1971:170]
Yurla Yurlanja, Ulaolinya, Lhanima, Tharlimanha, Wangga Manha, Pitta Pitta, Lanima, Ulaolinja, Ju:lanja, Ju:lanji, Yoolanlanya, U la linya, U la linye, U lay linye, Uluonga, Jura

According to Breen (2007 p.c.), Lanima G53 and Yurlayurlanya (Ulaolinya) are groups whose dialect is Wangkamanha G1 (or possibly two names for the same group).

Previously Lanima was treated as equivalent to Ulaolinya in both AUSTLANG and the Thesaurus. Uloalinya (and variants) appears in early records such as Roth (1897, 1978), Field (1898), Mathews (1899) and Rivet (1925), whereas Lanima appears in the research of Blake and Breen (i.e. Blake and Breen 1971; Breen 1970, 1971, 1972; Blake 1967, 1975, 1976).

Wurm (1972, 1994) and Walsh (1981) conflate the two, treating Ulaolinya as a variant form of Lanima, and Blake and Breen (1971:5) say they are 'probably' the same.

Tindale (1974) and Dixon (2002), however, treat them as distinct. Tindale gives different locations for Julaolinja G2 (at 'Carlo Springs on upper Mulligan River') and, further south, Lanima (at 'Mulligan River north of Kaliduwarry waterhole').

Note that Oates and Oates (1970) remark that Ulaolinya may be the same as Pitta Pitta G6, adding a further element of uncertainty to the identity of Ulaolinya.

Tindale lists Wanggamanha G1 as an alternative name for Lanima, noting that it is the name of the language of the Lanima people. This accords with Blake and Breen (1971) (among others, e.g. Oates (1975) and Dixon (2002)), however Blake (1975) uses Lanima in contrast to Wangkumana G1.

Note also that Capell (1963), who gives the same location as Tindale for Ulaolinja G2, locates Wangawan (equivalent to Wanggamanha according to Blake and Breen (1971)) 'near Lake Amaroo', which is in the region of the upper Mulligan River, not the lower Mulligan River where Lanima is located by Tindale. (Capell has no entry for Lanima.) For these reasons, Ulaolinya, Lanima and Wangkamanha are cautiously treated separately in AUSTLANG.


  • Blake, Barry. 1967. Language elicitation from Mt Isa, Boulia and Dajarra, QLD. (BLAKE_02)
  • Blake, Barry. 1975. Language elicitation from far western Qld. (BLAKE_B04)
  • Blake, Barry. 1976. Pitta Pitta and Lanima language elicitation. (BLAKE_B05)
  • Blake, Barry & Gavan Breen. 1971. The Pitta-Pitta dialects: Linguistic Communications 4. Melbourne: Monash University.
  • Breen, Gavan. 1970. Report of field trip to western and central Queensland, 1970. (MS 159, Part 4)
  • Breen, Gavan. 1971. Report on field trip to western Queensland and Northern Territory, April-June 1971. (MS 159, Part 5)
  • Breen, Gavan. 1972. Report on field trip to Western Qld and adjacent areas, April-July, 1972. (MS 159, Part 8)
  • Capell, Arthur. 1963. Linguistic survey of Australia. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
  • Dixon, R. M. W. 2002. Australian languages: their nature and development: Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Field, W.G. 1898. U-la-linya tribe. Sandringham Station, west Queensland. Science of Man, vol. 1, no. 3, p. 61. (S 57/63)
  • Mathews, R.H. 1899. Divisions of some Aboriginal tribes, Queensland. Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, vol. 33, pp. 108-114.(B M429.78/P2)
  • Oates, Lynette F. 1975. The 1973 supplement to a revised linguistic survey of Australia. Armidale: Armidale Christian Book Centre.
  • Oates, William J. & Lynette F. Oates. 1970. A revised linguistic survey of Australia: Australian Aboriginal Studies 33, Linguistic Series 12. Canberra: AIAS.
  • Rivet, Paul. 1925. Les Australiens en Amérique. Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique, vol. 26. (Rp RIV)
  • Roth, Walter Edmund. 1897. Ethnological studies among the north-west-central Queensland Aborigines. Brisbane: Government Printer.
  • Roth, Walter Edmund. 1978. The expression of ideas by manual signs: a sign language. In Umiker-Sebeok & Sebeok (eds), Aboriginal sign languages of the Americas and Australia. New York: Plenum Press. (B U515.15/A1)
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Walsh, Michael. 1981. Maps of Australia and Tasmania. In Language atlas of the Pacific area Pt 1, eds S. A. Wurm and Shirô Hattori. Canberra: Australian Academy of the Humanities.
  • Wurm, S. A. 1972. Languages of Australia and Tasmania. The Hague: Mouton.
  • Wurm, Stephen. 1994. Australian classification. In Atlas of the world's languages, eds C. Moseley and R. E. Asher, 114-118. New York: Routledge.
State / Territory: 
Location information: 

Julaolinja: At Carlo Springs on upper Mulligan River. They shifted east to Marion Downs in postcontact times (Tindale 1974).

Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981): 

Manjiljarra (A51.1 ) in Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981).


Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:

Julajulanja (RLS), Lanima (RLS, Blake & Breen), Wangkamaa (Breen), Wanggamanha (RLS, AIAS), Wangkamanha (Breen), Wangkamadla (Blake & Breen), Wonggawan (RLS), Wonkamala (Howitt), Ulaolinya Uluonga (Mackie), Ulla-la-linya (RHM), Yuloolinya (Roth)

Classification of the language:

Karnic Group, Palku subgroup (orig. Pittapittic group)

Identification codes:

Oates '73: 72a

AIAS: G.002

Capell: G23

Present number and distribution of speakers:

Traditionally on Mulligan and lower Georgina Rivers. Extinct.

People who have worked intensively on the language:


Practical orthography:


Word lists:


Grammar or sketch grammar:

Blake & Breen.

Material available on the language:

See also references in Blake, 1979.

Blake, Barry J. 1966. Report (to AIAS) on field trip Jul-Aug 1966. 2p. (Doc 66/430) (data on languages and informants of Pitta-Pitta, Ringa Ringa, Wangamana, Jalanga, Wagaja, Wanji,


---------- 1979. Pitta-Pitta, pp.182-242 in Handbook of Australian Languages [Vol. 1], ed. by R.M.W. Dixon and Barry J. Blake. Canberra: A.N.U. Press; Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Blake, Barry & J.G. Breen. 1971. The Pitta-Pitta dialects. Linguistic Communications 4:1-182. map. (incorporates 1971 ts. 53p. with same title) (Wangkamanha sketch grammar)

Roth, W.E. (nineteenth century material--see Blake, 1979)

Literacy material:


Kathy Menning (comp.) and David Nash (ed.) 1981. © IAD Press

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledges IAD Press for permission to use this material in AUSTLANG.

Barry Blake
Indigenous organisations: 
Year Source Speaker numbers

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Less than 20 pages 1
Text Collection None 0
Grammar None 0
Audio-visual 1-10 2
Manuscript note: 
not available
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan Karnic Palku Pitta Pitta [Lhanima, Yurlayurlanya] Pitta Pitta [dialects: Related to Gangalanya, Garanya, Lhanima, Ngurlubulu, Ragaya, Rangwa, Yurlayurlanya, which may be extinct, and Wanggamala.]
Dixon (2002)   LAKE EYRE BASIN AREAL GROUP North and west Lake Eyre Basin group Blake and Breen (1971) Yurla-Yurlanja (or Ulaolinya), Lhanima (or Tharlimanha or Wangga-Manha) Wangka-yutjuru* further dialects: Rangwa (or Runga-Rungawa), Yurla-Yurlanja (or Ulaolinya), Lhanima (or Tharlimanha or Wangga-Manha)
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan Karnic   Lhanima, Yurlayurlanya  
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Karnic Palku Lhanima, Yurlayurlanya  
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Karnic Palku (Ulaolinya / Lanima)  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Pittapittic   Lanima, Ulaolinya  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Pittapittic   Ulaolinya