K39: Gambera

AIATSIS Code: 
K39
AIATSIS Reference name: 
Gambera

tab group

Name
ABN Name
-
ABS Name
Gambera
Horton Name
Gamberre
Ethnologue name
Gambera
ISO 639-3 code
gma
Tindale name
Kambure
Thesaurus heading
Gamberre / Gambera language (K39) (WA SD52-09)
Tindale (1974)
Kambera, Kamberange (members of the tribe), Kanbre, Gambre, Barurungari (means 'upland' or 'plateau people'; term used also for other tribes), Kambumiri (name of West Bay and area of World War II Truscott Airfield), Purungari (lit. 'coast people'; applied by Worora).
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
gamb1251
Other sources
Kularri/Gularri 'south-westerners' (regional term used to refer to Wunambal, Gamberre and Worrorra - Perez 1977, Perez, Pratt & Millington 1981, Torres, Pratt & Millington 1986) [Carr 2000:13] Gaambera [Karadada et al. 2011]
Synonyms
Gamberre
Gambre
Kambure
Barurungari
Gamgre
Guwan
Kambera
Kamberange
Kambumiri
Kanbre
Purungari
Gambere
Kambre
Kularri/Gularri south westerners
Comment
Language comment
Gambera is a non-Pama-Nyungan language of the Worrorran family, specifically Northern Worrorran, along with Miwa K44; Gunin/Kwini K36; Wilawila K35; Yiiji K32; Wunambal K22; and (tentitively) Gulunggulu K59 (McGregor & Rumsey, 2009:8). Karadada et al. (2011:15) comment that Gaambera and Wunambal K22 are 'very closely related', with very little difference in pronunciation and lexicon. 'It is possible that there were some differences in the past but in recent times these differences have faded.' The 'Uunguu plants and animals' dictionary basically treats them as a single language, with additional Gaambera forms given where they are different.
References

Harvey, Mark. 2008. Non-Pama-Nyungan Languages: land-language associations at colonisation. AILEC 0802.
Jones, Barbara. 2006. The Forrest River language: a book about the indigenous language of the Forrest River region. Halls Creek, WA: Kimberley Language Resource Centre.
Karadada, Jack, Lily Karadada, Wilfred Goonack, Geoffrey Mangolamara, William Bunjuck, Louis Karadada, Basil Djanghara, Sylvester Mangolamara, Janet Oobagooma, Agnes Charles, Dianna Williams, Regina Karadada, Thomas Saunders, and Glenn Wightman. 2011. Uunguu plants and animals: Aboriginal biological knowledge from Wunambal Gaambera Country in the north-west Kimberley, Australia. Wyndham, W.A.: Wunambal Gaambera Aboriginal Corporation.
McGregor, William, & Alan Rumsey. 2009. Worrorran revisited: the case for genetic relations among languages of the Northern Kimberley region of Western Australia: Pacific Linguistics 600. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.

Status
Confirmed
Location
State
WA
Location information
Coasts of Admiralty Gulf except in the vicinity of Osborne Islands; east to Monger Creek in Napier Broome Bay; south only to southern rim of valley of King Edward River; a horde on Sir Graham Moore Island, whose people were chiefly marine food gatherers (Tindale 1974).(On McGregor's map 1983, it extends further to East.) The general association was to the coast from the Osborne Islands to Poempangala Hill, and attendant drainages into this section of coast. In his description of Wunambal, Tindale states “the Tjawurungari (Tawandjangango) were on the Osborne Islands. The last-named were also called Wilawila people and their language is thought to have affinities with Kambure. According to a native informant they are “light Kambure” speakers. Another tribe claiming the name Wilawila lives on the Carson River (see separate heading)”. The motivation for Tindale excluding the Osborne Islands from the Gaambera area is obscure, especially as his informant described them as speaking Gaambera. In 2007, nobody recognized the name Wila-Wila as applying to the Carson River area. However, two separate sources recognized the name as applying focally to an insular Wunambalic variety. One source specifically associated the name to Bigge Island and the adjacent coastal Hunter River area. This is within Wunambal country.Tom Vigilante stated that his understanding was that the area was Gaambera. Vigilante also stated that the drainage of Monger Creek was Gaambera, with the eastern boundary being in the Poempangala hill range. Anthony Redmond stated that the name Gaambera did not extend into the King Edward River drainage (Harvey ASEDA 802) Wunambal Gaambera Country lies in the north west Kimberley area of Western Australia. It incorporates some 200 kilometers of coastal and inland country, from Prince Frederick Harbour in the south west to Napier Broome Bay in the northeast, including parts of the King Edward River, the Anjo and Bougainville Peninsulas, the Mitchell and Gardner Plateaus, the Mitchell and lower Roe Rivers, the Bonaparte Archipelago and the Admiralty Gulf Aboriginal Reserve. It also includes large areas of intensely dissected coastal country, the seas of the Bonaparte Archipelago and Admiralty Gulf with many islands, the largest being Bigge Island, estuaries bays and harbours' (Karadada et al. 2011:10) Contemporary location Wunambal Gaambera people mainly live in the communities of Kalumburu, Kandiwal and Mowanjum near Derby, with some speakers also living in Kununurra and Wyndham, as well as a few outstations and camps in the dry season. (Karadada et al. 2001:10)
Maps
-
Catalogue
Search MURA the AIATSIS catalogue, for items about this language
Speakers
Speaker table
Speaker NILS table
1-19 years20-39 years40-59 years60+
5555
NILS endangerment grade
0
Documentation
Document Score: 
6
Documentation table: 
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listMedium (100-200 pages)3
Text CollectionLess than 20 pages1
GrammarNone0
Audio-visual1-102
Manuscript Note: 
tape transcription/field note available (Nekes) - unclear status
Grammar: 
Dictionary: 
Karadada, J. et al. 2011. Uunguu plants and animals: Aboriginal biological knowledge from Wunambal Gaambera Country in the north-west Kimberley, Australia. Wyndham, WA: Wunambal Gaambera Aboriginal Corporation.
Programs
Activities: 
KLRC and linguist Margaret Howard are working with language speakers at Kalumburu. (Carr 2000:7)
People: 
Margaret Howard (nee Sefton), Daisy Utemorrah (dec.)
Indigenous organisations: 
Classification
Classification table: 
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)WororanGambera
Dixon (2002)NORTH KIMBERLEY AREAL GROUPGamberreWunambal McGregor (1993) further dialects: Wilawila, Gamberre, Kwini (=Gunin), Ginan, Miwa (=Bagu), Yiidji (=Forrest River)
Wurm (1994)WororanWunambalicGambera
Walsh (1981)WororanWunambalicGambera
Oates (1975)WororanWunambalicGambera
Wurm (1972)WororanWunambalicGambre
O'Grady, Voegelin & Voegelin (1966)WororanWunambalicGambre