L14: Dhirari

AIATSIS code: 
L14
AIATSIS reference name: 
Dhirari

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Name
Thesaurus heading language
Thesaurus heading people
ABN name
-
ABS name
-
Horton name
Dhirari
Ethnologue name
Dirari
ISO 639-3 code
dit
Tindale name
Tirari
Tindale (1974)
Terari (valid alternative pronunciation).
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
dira1238
Other sources
Thirrari [Austin, Hercus & Jones 1988:115]
Synonyms
Dirari, Tirari, Dhirrari, Thirrari, Terari, Dhirrarri
Comment
Comments: 

Austin (1976:757) says that Dhirari and Diyari L17 are dialects of one language. Trefry (1984:171) remarks that Diari L17 is a dialect of an unnamed language, noting that the relationship between the languages of the area is uncertain. The diagram on page 171 suggests that there may be more members of this unnamed language than Tirari (L14) and Diari.

Austin (1981:5) reiterates his earlier observation of the close relationship between Dhirari and Diyari, but also identifies evidence of there being at least two dialects of Dhirari. He says the data in Reuther, collected at Killalpaninna (Northern Dhirari L69), differs from data originating in Muloorina (Southern Dhirari L70) in terms of vocabulary (69% common) but phonologically the two are nearly identical.

According to Breen (1976:745), Dhirari forms a dialect chain with Ngamini L22, Midhaga L34, Dieri L17, Yaluyandi L31 and Garwali L35. It forms part of the Karnic languages group (Hercus 1994: 10).

 

References: 
  • Austin, Peter. 1976. Simple and compound verbs: conjugation by auxiliaries in Australian verbal systems: Dhirari. In Dixon (ed.)Grammatical categories in Australian languages, pp. 757-763. (B D621.81/G1)
  • Austin, Peter. 1981. A grammar of Diyari, South Australia: Cambridge Studies in Linguistics 32. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Breen, Gavan. 1976. Ngamini, and a note on Midhaga. In R.M.W. Dixon (ed.) Grammatical categories in Australian languages, Linguistic Series No. 22, pp. 745-50. Canberra: AIAS. (B D621.81/G1)
  • Hercus, Luise Anna. 1994. A grammar of the Arabana-Wangkangurru language, Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia: Pacific Linguistics C-128. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Trefry, David. 1984. Diari segmental phonology. Pacific linguistics A-68, pp. 171-327. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
SA
Location information: 

... immediately to the west of the Diyari, around the eastern shore of Lake Eyre (Austin 1981).

Eastern shore of Lake Eyre from Muloorina north to Warburton River; east to Killalapaninna; a small tribe now extinct (Tindale 1974).

 

Maps: 
-
Links
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Peter Austin, Luise Hercus, Johann Reuther
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oatesexist
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate0
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Small (20-100 pages) 2
Text Collection Less than 20 pages 1
Grammar Large grammar (more than 200 pages) 4
Audio-visual More than 10 3
Manuscript note: 
not available
Grammar: 

Austin, Peter. 1981. A grammar of Diyari, South Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dictionary: 

Reuther, J.G. Reuther comparative 7, ASEDA 0379.

Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan Karnic Karna Dirari  
Dixon (2002)   LAKE EYRE BASIN AREAL GROUP Central Lake Eyre Basin areal group Dhirari Diyari* Austin (1981a) further dialects: Dhirari, Pilardapa
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan Karnic   Dirari  
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Karnic Diyari/Karna Dirari  
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Karnic Karna Dhirari  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Dieric Karna Tirari  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)