S48: Krauatungalang

AIATSIS code: 
AIATSIS reference name: 


Thesaurus heading language
Thesaurus heading people
ABN name
ABS name
Horton name
Kurnai (Krauatungalung)
Ethnologue name
ISO 639-3 code
Tindale name
Tindale (1974)
Kroatungolung, Krow-ithun-koolo, Krowathun-Koolung, Krauatun-kurnai, Muk-dhang (['mak] = good, ['õang] = speech, own language name), Gunggala-dhang (language name given by Bidawal), Thangkwai (language name given by others, means 'rough speech'), Thangguai, Thang quai, Karnathun, ['ngatban] = no, ['ka:nai] = man.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Kroatungolung, Krowithunkoolo
Other sources
Krauatungalung [Clark 2005]
Thangquai, Kurnai, Krauatungalung, Brabralung, Braiakaulung, Bratauolung, Ganai, Tatungalung, Kroatungolung, Krow ithun koolo, Krauatungulung, Krowithunkoolo, Grawadungalung, Thangguai, man

This is a dialect of Gunai / Kurnai S68 (Clark 2005, Dixon 2002 and the Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages).

Gardner (1996:5) and Hercus (1969), however, treat it as the name of a group whose language is Kurnai S68.

Howitt reports that the name Krauatungalung is the name of a clan whose language is called Thangquai, being one of three dialects spoken by the Kurnai S68 people (1996 (1904):73).

Walsh largely follows this analysis, with the exception of using Muk-thang S68 as the cover term as well as one of the dialects, and with the addition of Bidhawal S49 as a fourth dialect (1981). Howitt says that Bidawal  S49,  that it is a mixture of Kurnai S68, Ngarigo S46 and 'Murring' (i.e. a Yuin language) (1996 (1904):79-81).

Clark analysed the primary and secondary sources of information on the boundaries of Krauatangalung S48 and the neighbouring Birrdhawal S49 language (2011:38-49), He concludes that, contrary to Wesson's (1994, 2000, 2002) work, and supportive of Fesl's (1985) and Thompson's (1985) findings, 'the Birrdhawal were land-locked and did not have any coastline as a southern boundary', and that 'the strip of coastal land between the Snowy River and Point Hicks or Wingan Inlet' belonged to the Krauatangalung S48.


  • Clark, Ian. 2005. Aboriginal language areas in Victoria - a reconstruction: a report to Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages. Melbourne: Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages.
  • Clark, Ian D. 2011. Birrdhawal language and territory: a reconsideration. Australian Aboriginal Studies 1:34-50.
  • Dixon, R. M. W. 2002. Australian languages: their nature and development: Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Fesl, Eve. 1985. Gunai: a study of the Aboriginal languages of Gippsland based on the nineteenth century materials, Monash University: PhD.
  • Gardner, P. D. 1996. The language of the Kurnai tribes of Gippsland, with notes on grammar and pronunciation, by R. H. Mathews, and Kurnai-English, English-Kurnai vocabulary, compiled by P. D. Gardner. Ensay, VIC: Ngarak Press.
  • Thompson, Kym. 1985. A history of the Aboriginal people of east Gippsland: a report to the Land Conservation Council of Victoria. Melbourne: Land Conservation Council.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Walsh, Michael. 1981. Maps of Australia and Tasmania. In Language atlas of the Pacific area Pt 1, eds S. A. Wurm and Shirô Hattori. Canberra: Australian Academy of the Humanities.
  • Wesson, Sue C. 1994. An overview of the sources for a language and clan atlas of eastern Victoria and southern New South Wales. Melbourne: Monash University, Dept. of Geography and Environmental Science, Graduate School of Environmental Science.
  • Wesson, Sue C. 2000. An historical atlas of the Aborigines of eastern Victoria and far south-eastern New South Wales. Melbourne: School of Geography and Environmental Science.
  • Wesson, Sue C. 2002. The Aborigines of eastern Victoria and far south-eastern New South Wales, 1830 to 1910: an historical geography, Monash University: PhD.
State / Territory: 
Location information: 

Cape Everard (Point Hicks) to Lakes Entrance; on Cann, Brodribb, Buchan, and Snowy rivers; inland to about Black Mountain. One of the five tribes artificially grouped as the Kurnai (Tindale 1974).


Indigenous organisations: 
Year Source Speaker numbers

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list   1 (fauna)
Text Collection None 0
Grammar None 0
Audio-visual None 0
Manuscript note: 
not available
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)          
Dixon (2002)       Thangquai Muk-thang (Gaanay, Kurnai, Kunnai) further dialects: Nulit, Thangquai, Bidhawal
Wurm (1994)          
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Ganay   Thangguai (Kratauatungalung) Muk-Thang [dialects: Muk-Thang (Brabiralung), Thangguai, Bidhawal, Nulit (spoken by the Braiakaulung, Bratauolung, Tatungalung tribes)]
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Kurnic   Grawadungalung  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Kurnic   Krauetungalung (Grawadungalung)  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Kurnic   Krauatungulung