S48: Krauatungalang

AIATSIS code: 
S48
AIATSIS reference name: 
Krauatungalang

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Name
ABN name
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ABS name
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Horton name
Kurnai (Krauatungalung)
Ethnologue name
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ISO 639-3 code
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Tindale name
Krauatungalung
Thesaurus heading language
Krauatungalung language S48
Thesaurus heading (old)
Krauatungulung language (S48) (Vic SJ55-08)
Tindale (1974)
Kroatungolung, Krow-ithun-koolo, Krowathun-Koolung, Krauatun-kurnai, Muk-dhang (['mak] = good, ['õang] = speech, own language name), Gunggala-dhang (language name given by Bidawal), Thangkwai (language name given by others, means 'rough speech'), Thangguai, Thang quai, Karnathun, ['ngatban] = no, ['ka:nai] = man.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Kroatungolung, Krowithunkoolo
Glottocode
-
Other sources
Krauatungalung [Clark 2005]
Synonyms
Thangquai, Kurnai, Krauatungalung, Brabralung, Braiakaulung, Bratauolung, Ganai, Tatungalung, Kroatungolung, Krow ithun koolo, Krauatungulung, Krowithunkoolo, Grawadungalung, Thangguai, man
Comment
Comments: 
According to Clark (2005), Dixon (2002) and the Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages, this is a dialect of Gunai / Kurnai S68. Gardner (1996:5) and Hercus (1969), however, treat it as the name of a group whose language is Kurnai S68. Howitt (1996 (1904):73) reports that the name Krauatungalung is the name of a clan whose language is called Thangquai, being one of three dialects spoken by the Kurnai S68 people. Walsh (1981) largely follows this analysis, with the exception of using Muk-thang S68 as the cover term as well as one of the dialects, and with the addition of Bidhawal S49 as a fourth dialect. Of Bidawal S49, Howitt (1996 (1904):79-81) comments that it is a mixture of Kurnai S68, Ngarigo S46 and 'Murring' (i.e. a Yuin language). Clark (2011:38-49) analysed the primary and secondary sources of information on the boundaries of Krauatangalung S48 and the neighbouring Birrdhawal S49 language. He concludes that, contrary to Wesson's (1994, 2000, 2002) work, and supportive of Fesl's (1985) and Thompson's (1985) findings, 'the Birrdhawal were land-locked and did not have any coastline as a southern boundary', and that 'the strip of coastal land between the Snowy River and Point Hicks or Wingan Inlet' belonged to the Krauatangalung S48.
References: 
  • Clark, Ian. 2005. Aboriginal language areas in Victoria - a reconstruction: a report to Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages. Melbourne: Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages.
  • Clark, Ian D. 2011. Birrdhawal language and territory: a reconsideration. Australian Aboriginal Studies 1:34-50.
  • Dixon, R. M. W. 2002. Australian languages: their nature and development: Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Fesl, Eve. 1985. Gunai: a study of the Aboriginal languages of Gippsland based on the nineteenth century materials, Monash University: PhD.
  • Gardner, P. D. 1996. The language of the Kurnai tribes of Gippsland, with notes on grammar and pronunciation, by R. H. Mathews, and Kurnai-English, English-Kurnai vocabulary, compiled by P. D. Gardner. Ensay, VIC: Ngarak Press.
  • Thompson, Kym. 1985. A history of the Aboriginal people of east Gippsland: a report to the Land Conservation Council of Victoria. Melbourne: Land Conservation Council.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Walsh, Michael. 1981. Maps of Australia and Tasmania. In Language atlas of the Pacific area Pt 1, eds S. A. Wurm and Shirô Hattori. Canberra: Australian Academy of the Humanities.
  • Wesson, Sue C. 1994. An overview of the sources for a language and clan atlas of eastern Victoria and southern New South Wales. Melbourne: Monash University, Dept. of Geography and Environmental Science, Graduate School of Environmental Science.
  • Wesson, Sue C. 2000. An historical atlas of the Aborigines of eastern Victoria and far south-eastern New South Wales. Melbourne: School of Geography and Environmental Science.
  • Wesson, Sue C. 2002. The Aborigines of eastern Victoria and far south-eastern New South Wales, 1830 to 1910: an historical geography, Monash University: PhD.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
VIC
Location information: 
Cape Everard (Point Hicks) to Lakes Entrance; on Cann, Brodribb, Buchan, and Snowy rivers; inland to about Black Mountain. One of the five tribes artificially grouped as the Kurnai (Tindale 1974)
Maps: 
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Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
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People: 
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Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word list1 (fauna)
Text CollectionNone0
GrammarNone0
Audio-visualNone0
Manuscript note: 
not available
Grammar: 
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Dictionary: 
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Classification
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)
Dixon (2002)ThangquaiMuk-thang (Gaanay, Kurnai, Kunnai) further dialects: Nulit, Thangquai, Bidhawal
Wurm (1994)
Walsh (1981)Pama-NyunganGanayThangguai (Kratauatungalung)Muk-Thang [dialects: Muk-Thang (Brabiralung), Thangguai, Bidhawal, Nulit (spoken by the Braiakaulung, Bratauolung, Tatungalung tribes)]
Oates (1975)Pama-NyunganKurnicGrawadungalung
Wurm (1972)Pama-NyunganKurnicKrauetungalung (Grawadungalung)
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)Pama-NyunganKurnicKrauatungulung