C16: Wakaya

AIATSIS code: 
C16
AIATSIS reference name: 
Wakaya

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Name
ABN name
-
ABS name
Other Australian Indigenous Languages, nec (Wakaya)
Horton name
Wakaya
Ethnologue name
Wagaya
ISO 639-3 code
wga
Tindale name
Wakaja
Thesaurus heading language
Wakaya language C16
Thesaurus heading (old)
Wakaya language (C16) (NT SE53-15)
Tindale (1974)
Wagaja, Waggaia, Wagai, Waagai, Wagaiau, Waagi, Warkya, Wogaia, Worgaia, Worgai, Workaia, Warkaia, Workia, Workii, Woorkia, Lee-wakya, Akaja (of Kaititj), Ukkia, Arkiya.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Wakaja, Waggaia, Wagai, Waagai, Waagi, Warkya, Worgaia, Worgai, Workia, Leewakya, Ukkia
Glottocode
waga1260
Other sources
Synonyms
Wagaya, Other Australian Indigenous Languages, Wakaja; Akaja, Arkiya, Lee wakya, Ukkia, Waagai, Waagi, Wagai, Wagaiau, Wagaja, Waggaia, Warkaia, Warkya, Wogaia, Woorkia, Worgai, Worgaia, Workaia, Workia, Worrkii, Wakaya; Leewakya, Wakaja, Wakkaja, Worki a, Wuga, Wagaia, Leewakya, Workii, Akaja
Comment
Comments: 
The Wakaya language (called Wuka by the community) is related to the neighbouring languages Bularnu G12.1 and Warluwarra G10. Breen divides recorded materials into two distinct forms: Wakaya and Eastern Wakaya. The former has two noun classes (masculine and non-masculine) while the latter does not. There is a possibility that the Eastern dialect was actually a koine formerly used as a lingua franca for speakers of Wakaya (C16), Yinjilanji G14 and Bularnu G12.1. Breen considers the possibility that material recorded by Spencer and Gillen (mostly in 1904:80-81) from a Wakaya man visiting the Warumungu C18 represents a third variety. The small amount of evidence suggests that this variety may have had noun classes (Breen, nd:30-31).
References: 
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NT
Location information: 

Wakaya country extends from the Rankin and James Rivers in the southeast, across the desert (now known as the Wakaya Desert) south of the Barkly Highway, to the northeast part of the Davenport Ranges and the lower Frew River, north to Alroy Downs on the Barkly Tableland and across the southern part of the tableland to near Alexandria. If Eastern Wakaya is a genuine dialect this area could be extended an indefinite distance further to the east (Breen, nd:29).

Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981): 

Yinhawangka (A48 ) in Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981).

Wakaya

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:
Leewakya (AL), Ukkia (AL), Waagai (AL), Waagi (AL), Wagai (AL), Wagaja (T, AC, Breen), Wagaya (Breen), Waggaia (AL), Wakaja (AL), Wakaya (SAW, Chakravarti), Warkya (AL), Worgai (AL), Worgaia (Spencer & Gillen), Workia (Roth,AL), Wuga (used by speakers (?))
Dialects: Eastern, Western
Classification of the language:
Wagaya-Warluwaric Group (orig. Wakayic), Wagaya subgroup
Identification codes:
Oates '73: 67
AIAS: C.016
Capell: C22
Present number and distribution of speakers:
Anthony Lagoon, Brunette Downs, Elliott, Tennant Creek, Dajarra, Lake Nash Middle-aged speakers can speak "to some degree" and understand "fairly well" (Breen, 1971-73)
Milliken, 1972 -- 79
Black, 1979 -- as low as half a dozen
People who have worked intensively on the language:
Breen may be continuing.
Practical orthography:
No.
Word lists:
Breen.
Grammar or sketch grammar:
Breen, 1974.
Material available on the language:
Blake, Barry J. 1966. Report (to AIAS) on field trip Jul-Aug 1966. 2p. (Doc 66/430) (data on languages and informants of Pitta-Pitta, Ringa Ringa, Wangamana, Jalanga, Wagaja, Wanji,
Kalkatung).
---------- Wagaya tape transcription. (pMs 2702, AIAS) Breen, J.G. 1967. Wakaya field notes. (hundreds of pages, transcription and field notes). (Ms 122, AIAS)
---------- 1971. Aboriginal languages of Western Queensland. (prelim. version) Linguistic Communications 5:1-88. Appendix 1: 100 item list for 19 languages.
---------- Wagaya vocabulary. 33p. ts. (categorised Wakaya-English word list)
---------- 1974. Wagaya grammar. 188p.
---------- 1976. Wagaya, pp.340-2,590-4 in Grammatical Categories in Australian Languages, ed. by R.M.W. Dixon. AIAS. (also some forms on pp.292-5,304,624)
---------- [1979]. Phonology of the western dialect of Wagaya. Preliminary, tentative. 49p. ms. (also 23p. version)
Hale, Kenneth L. Toward a genetic classification of Australian languages. 10p. ts. AIAS. (explanation of dialect chain)
Literacy material:
No.

Kathy Menning (comp.) and David Nash (ed.) 1981. © IAD Press

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledges IAD Press for permission to use this material in AUSTLANG.

Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Daniel Brammall, Gavan Breen, Ken Hale, Papulu Apparr-Kari Language Centre
Indigenous organisations: 
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oatesexist
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Less than 20 pages 1
Text Collection Less than 20 pages 1
Grammar Small grammar (100-200 pages) 3
Audio-visual More than 10 3
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 

Breen, Gavan. Wakaya, ASEDA 0047.

Brammall, Daniel. 1991. A comparative grammar of Warluwaric, Australian National University: BA (Hons).

Dictionary: 

Hale, Kenneth and Breen, Gavan. Wakaya, ASEDA 0711.

Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan Wagaya-Warluwaric Warluwara-Thawa Wagaya  
Dixon (2002)   NGARNA SUBGROUP* Southern Ngarna subgroup* Wagaya Wagaya further dialect: Yindjilandji (or may be a separate language)
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan Wagaya-Warluwaric   Wagaya  
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Wagaya-Warluwaric Wagaya Wagaya  
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Wagaya-Warluwaric Wagaya Wagaya  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Wakaya-Warluwaric Wakaya Wakaya  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Wakayic   Wakaya