K21: Wanyjirra

AIATSIS code: 
K21
AIATSIS reference name: 
Wanyjirra

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Name
ABN name
-
ABS name
Wanyjirra
Horton name
Gurindji (Wandjira)
Ethnologue name
Gurinji [Wanyjirra]
ISO 639-3 code
-
Tindale name
Wandjira
Thesaurus heading language
Wanyjirra language K21
Thesaurus heading (old)
Wanyjirra language (K21) (NT SE52-11)
Tindale (1974)
'Wadshara, Manu, Manoo (of Terry).
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
-
Other sources
Wanjira (Milliken 1976:242), Wandjirra (Tsunoda 1981) [Senge 2008:4]
Synonyms
Wanjdjirra, Gurinji, Wandjira, Wadshara, Manu, Manoo
Comment
Comments: 
Capell (1940) says that Wandjira (K21) is reported by speakers 'to be very close to Njinin' K7, which Capell identifies as the southern dialect of Djäru K12. McConvell (2006 p.c.) says Wanyjira forms a dialect chain with Gurindji C20 and Jaru K12 and, as such, it is hard to say whether it is a dialect of Gurindji or Jaru. Chikako Senge began a PhD on Wanyjirra grammar in 2008.
References: 
  • Harvey, Mark. 2008. Non-Pama-Nyungan Languages: land-language associations at colonisation. AILEC 0802.
  • Senge, Chikako. 2008. A sketch grammar of Wanyjirra, University of Melbourne: BA (Hons).
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
WA
Location information: 
The general associations were to the drainages into Nongra Lake and the section of Sturt Creek drainage around Inverway homestead (Harvey ASEDA 802). The Wanyjirra language was traditionally spoken around Inverway and Birrindudu stations, Northern Territory (Tsunoda 1998) [...] However, Tsunoda's data was collected mainly in traditional Djaru territory, i.e. Halls Creek or Nicholson station, Western Australia. This is because many Wanyjirra people have moved from their traditional territory into surrounding areas. (Senge 2008:4).
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981): 

Marawa (A22 ) in Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981).

Jaru

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:
Djaru (T,AC,SAW,O'G,RLS, Kaberry, AIAS), Dyaru (Kofod), Jarrau (R.H. Matthews), Tjaru (Douglas, Harrison) K.012 (Wanjira, K21)(Waringari, A63)
Dialect: Jaru is in a dialect relationship to Nyininy.
Jaru and Nyininy are said to be closely related to the following language, on which there is little information:
Wanjira:
Alternate names:
Mulbera (Kaberry, alternate name),Wanjira (SAW), Wandjira (T,AC, AIAS, RLS), Wanjira is grouped with Waringari in Oates 1973.
It is doubtful whether Waringari is a language name.
See Ngarinman.
Classification of the language:
Northern Western Desert type, Ngumpin subgroup
Identification codes:
Oates '73: 59.3a (Wanjira, 59.3b) (Waringari, 59.3b)
AIAS: K.012 (Wanjira, K21)(Waringari, A63)
Capell: K3 (Wanjira, K3) (Waringari, A38)
Present number and distribution of speakers:
Hall's Creek area,(including Moola Bulla, Lamboo, Ruby Plains), south almost to Billiluna, Gordon Downs (until 1981), Nicholson, Flora Valley.
Oates, 1973 -- 246 adults (Hudson, June 1973)
Black, 1979 -- 250
People who have worked intensively on the language:
Tasakau Tsunoda (Nagoya, Japan)
Practical orthography:
None. Walmatjari orthography suitable.
Word lists:
Hudson (survey), Cooling, Tsunoda.
Grammar or sketch grammar:
Tsunoda, 1978.
Material available on the language:
(see also under Nyininy)
Capell, A. 1940. The classification of languages in north and north-west Australia. Oceania 10.3:241-272, 10.4:404-433. tbls. maps. (brief comparative vocabularies, grammatical
study, outline phonetics) (mentions Wanjira)
---------- 1955. Forchheimer and the pronoun. Oceania 25.4(June).
---------- The classification of languages in north and north-west Australia.
---------- & A.P. Elkin. 1937. The languages of the Kimberley Division. Oceania 8.2:216-245.
Cooling, Graham & Dianne. 1968. The phonemes of Djaru. 38p. ts. Kunanurra. SIL. (data check form)
Hudson, Joyce. 1973. Gurindji word list for a two-week survey (probably strongly influenced by Djaru). 12p. ts. SIL. (p10609, AIAS)
---------- 1973. Two Djaru word lists. 24p. SIL. (p 10607, AIAS)
Kaberry, Phyllis M. 1937. Notes on the language of East Kimberley, North-West Australia. Oceania 8.11.
O'Grady, Geoffrey N. 1957-58. Material on suffixing languages of W.A. ms. (comparative vocabularies in about 25 languages) (Ms 320, AIAS)
---------- Significance of the circumcision boundary in W.A. (comparative vocabularies of about 115 words) (AIAS restricted)
Tsunoda, Tasaku. 1978. The Djaru language of Kimberley, Western Australia. 285p. Melbourne: Monash University dissertation. (Ms 1133, AIAS)
Literacy material:

Kathy Menning (comp.) and David Nash (ed.) 1981. © IAD Press

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledges IAD Press for permission to use this material in AUSTLANG.

Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988): 

Nyamal (A58 ) in Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988).

8.13 Wanyjirra / Wandjira

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:
Wandjira (AIAS, Capell, Oates, Tsunoda, Wurm), Wanjira (Wurm), Wanjira:, Wanyjirra (Black & Walsh, KLS, McConvell), Mulbera (Kaberry, alternate name), Waringari (Oates, alternate name), Waiangara (Peile)
Wanjira is grouped with Waringari in Oates (1973). It is, however, doubtful whether Waringari is a language name; more likely it is the pan-eastern Kimberley word waringarri which means 'a big group of people'. According to McConvell (1985:98), Wanyjirra is very similar to Gurindji; indeed, remarks on pages 107 and 108 of his article seem to suggest that Gurindji and Wanyjirra are in a dialectal relationship.
Classification of the language:
Northern Western Desert type, Ngumpin subgroup
Identification codes:
AIAS: K21
Oates 1973: 59.3b
Capell: K3
Present number and distribution of speakers:
Traditionally, between Upper Baines and Ord Rivers.
Milliken estimates about 50 speakers in the NT, Inverway, Wave Hill.
Milliken (1972) - 54
Black (1979 ) - about 50
People who have worked intensively on the language:
Tsunoda, late 1970s, collected some information on the language during the course of his intensive investigation of Jaru in Halls Creek.
McConvell, 1975-1980, collected some information on the language in the Victoria River region.
Practical orthography:
None established. The South Kimberley orthography or some variant would be suitable.
Word lists:
None
Textual material:
None
Grammar or sketch grammar:
None
Material available on the language:
McConvell, P. 1985. Domains and codeswitching among bilingual Aborigines. In Clyne, M. (ed.), Australia, meeting place of languages. Canberra: PL, C-92. 95-125.
Tsunoda, T. 1975-1979. [Djaru field notes.] 24 parts. manuscript. AIAS Ms 1381. (A1;B4).
Language programme:
None
Language learning material:
None
Literacy material:
None

McGregor, William. 1988 Handbook of Kimberley Languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. © Author.

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledge William McGregor for permission to use his material in AUSTLANG.

Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Tasaku Tsunoda, Chikako Senge
Indigenous organisations: 
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt50
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS?
2005Estimate-
2006Census0
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listNone0
Text CollectionLarge (more than 200 pages)4
GrammarSketch grammar (less than 100 pages)2
Audio-visualMore than 103
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 

Senge, Chikako. 2008. A sketch grammar of Wanyjirra. University of Melbourne: BA (Hons).

Dictionary: 
-
Classification
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)Pama-NyunganSouth-WestNgumbinGurinji [Wanyjirra]Gurinji [dialects: Malngin, Wanyjirra (Wandjirra)]
Dixon (2002)NORTHERN DESERT FRINGE SUBGROUPEdgar Range to Victoria River subgroup*WanjdjirraGurindji (Kuurrinjtji) McConvell (ms.a) further dialects: Wanjdjirra, Malngin, Wurlayi, Ngarinman, Pilinara; possibly also Kartangarurru
Wurm (1994)
Walsh (1981)Pama-NyunganSouth-WestNgumbinWanyjirraGurindji (Guurindji) [dialects: Eastern (Gurindji), Malngin, Western (Gurindji), Wanyjirra]
Oates (1975)Pama-NyunganNorthern Western Desert TypeNgumbin (Eastern Kimberleys)Wandjira
Wurm (1972)Pama-NyunganSouthwest (or Nyungic)NgumbinWandjira
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)