A93: Nhanhagardi

AIATSIS code: 
AIATSIS reference name: 


Thesaurus heading language
Thesaurus heading people
ABN name
ABS name
Horton name
Ethnologue name
ISO 639-3 code
Tindale name
Widi (Nanakati)
Tindale (1974)
Wiri (valid alternative ['widi] = ['wiri] means 'no'), Minango (of Wadjari tribe, means southerners), Minangu, Nanakari (of Nokaan), Nanakati (my people), Barimaia (nondiscriminative name used by Wadjari for this and Barimaia tribe), Jaburu ('northern people,' name given by a man of Northam, i.e., probably Balardong).
O'Grady et al (1966)
Other sources
Nanakarri [von Brandenstein PMS 2125] Wilunyu (of the coast) [Vaso Elefsiniotis 2008 p.c.] Nganakari [<ozbib>Douglas 1981:196$6333</ozbib>] Pulinya [Clarrie Cameron 2009 p.c. via Henry Fraser]
Nana karti, Widi, Nanakarti, Nanakarri, Wiri, Minango, Minangu, Nanakari, Nanakati, Barimaia, Jaburu, Nganakarti

There have been varying reports on Nhanhagardi and its identity is unclear. Douglas (1976:3) says Nanakati (A93), referred to by the people of Mullewa, is another dialect of Njungar W41, while Tindale (1974) treats it as another name for Widi A13.

According to the WA Handbook, Morphy (1985) suggests that Nanakarti (A93) was the language spoken around Carnamah and Gullewa, perhaps to the coast, based on five of Bates' vocabularies.

Von Brandenstein (1991) says that the Watjarri A39 word 'Nhanhakarti' means 'this way' and refers to Wirtimaya A13. (See WA Handbook for the details of Bates' vocabularies and also for the details of Morphy (1985) and von Brandenstein (1991).)

Nhanhagardi and Naaguja A101 are conflated with Amangu W12 in Blevins (2001) and Oates (1975). Blevins (2001:3) describes the southern dialect of Nhanda W14 as 'Amangu W12 (also known as Amandyo, Nhaaguja (A101?), Njaagurdi and Nyaakurti A93?)'. She locates it 'from Geraldton (Champion Bay) south to Hill River and inland to Mullewa', an area which takes in the area of Nhanhagardi A93 described below by Elefsiniotis (2008 p.c.).

Von Brandenstein (1967:2) reports a language which is referred to by his informant as both Njaakurdi and Nanagarri (A93), the same language Gratte (1998:65) worked on which he reports as Nowkadja A101. However, it now appears that Nhanhagardi is a separate variety.

According to Vaso Elefsiniotis of Irra Wangga - Geraldton Language Program (2008 p.c.), Nhanhagardi is generally taken as the language and people traditionally of Champion Bay. Further, according to Clarrie Cameron, a descendant of Nhanhagardi (2009 p.c. via Henry Fraser of Irra Wangga - Geraldton Language Programme), Pulinya W43 is an old name for Nhanhagardi. He also comments that Nhanhagardi is a Nhanda S14 language. Further, although Gratte (2007) reports that the name Ngukaja A101 has now been as the 'tribal name for the Geraldton area', he notes that in earlier times there were in fact four dialects spoken in the region.

There is a short recording of a song in Nhanhagardi held by AIATSIS (VON-BRANDENSTEIN_04-002150).



  • Blevins, Juliette. 2001. Nhanda: an Aboriginal language of Western Australia: Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications, no. 30. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.
  • Douglas, Wilfrid H. 1968. The Aboriginal languages of south-west Australia: speech forms in current use and a technical description of Njungar: Australian Aboriginal Studies 14, Linguistic Series 4. Canberra: AIAS.
  • Douglas, Wilfrid H. 1976. The Aboriginal languages of the south-west of Australia, 2nd edition: Australian Aboriginal Studies, Research and Regional Studies 9. Canberra: AIAS.
  • Gratte, Stan. 2007. Letter and enclosure of two maps relating to Nowkadja language. (PMS 5968).
  • Thieberger, Nicholas. 1993. Handbook of Western Australian Aboriginal languages south of the Kimberley region: Pacific Linguistics C-124. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
State / Territory: 
Location information: 

Around Mingenew (Douglas 1968:3). ... near Carnamah and Gullewa (Blevins 2001:5). Traditionally of Champion Bay - extending south to Hill River (which includes Mingenew), inland to near Mullewa and north to the southern side of Bowes River (Vaso Elefsiniotis p.c. 2008).

  • Douglas, Wilfrid. 1976. The Aboriginal languages of the south-west of Australia, 2nd edn. Canberra: AIAS
Yamaji Irra Wangga - Geraldton Language Programme
Indigenous organisations: 
Year Source Speaker numbers

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list None 0
Text Collection None 0
Grammar None 0
Audio-visual None 0
Manuscript note: 
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)          
Dixon (2002)   MOORE RIVER TO GASCOYNE RIVER GROUP Watjarri/Parti-maya subgroup* Nana-karti Nana-karti
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan South-West   Nanakarti  
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan South-West Nyungar Nanakarti  
Oates (1975)          
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Southwest (or Nyungic) Nyungar Nanakarti  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)