E3: Birrbay

AIATSIS code: 
E3
AIATSIS reference name: 
Birrbay

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Name
ABN name
-
ABS name
-
Horton name
Biripi
Ethnologue name
Worimi (Birbay)
ISO 639-3 code
-
Tindale name
Birpai
Thesaurus heading language
Birrbay language E3
Thesaurus heading (old)
Birpai / Biripi language (E3) (NSW SH56-14)
Tindale (1974)
Birripai, Birripi, Brippai, Bripi, Birrapee, Birippi, ? Waw-wyper.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Biribi, Birripai, Bripi, Birrapee, Birippi
Glottocode
-
Other sources
Birrbay [Many Rivers Aboriginal Language Centre]
Synonyms
Birpai, Birpay, Worimi, Birbay, Biripi, Biribi, Birippi, Birrapee, Birripai, Birripi, Bripi, Brippai, Waw wyper, Biribai, Birrbay, Gathang, Kattang
Comment
Comments: 
According to Holmer (1966:1), Kattang E67 was said to have branched into Birripi (Birrimbai, Bilbai) (E3), spoken about Gloucester. Wafer and Lissarrague (2008:167 - 168) treat Gadhang (Taree dialect) E67, Warrimay E2, Guringay E95 and Birrbay (E3) as dialects of one language, which they call 'Lower North Coast Language'. They locate Birrbay in the region around the Hastings River, citing Branch (in Curr) and other sources to conclude this language was spoken in the region between the Manning River in the south and Wilson River in the north. Lissarrague uses the word Gathang E67 as the name of the language spoken by Birrbay (E3), Guringay E95 and Warrimay E2 peoples (2010:1), a practice also used by the online dictionary: http://www.firstvoices.com/fr/GathangGathang: 'We, the Birrbay, Guringay and Warrimay people are connecting with our language, our culture and and our history in reclaiming Gathang, the language of our Ancestors' .
References: 
  • Holmer, Nils Magnus. 1966. An attempt towards a comparative grammar of two Australian languages: Australian Aboriginal Studies 5, Linguistics Series 3, part 1. Canberra: AIAS.
  • Lissarrague, Amanda. 2010. A grammar and dictionary of Gathang The language of the Birrbay, Guringay and Warrimay. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
  • Radcliffe-Brown, Alfred. R. 1929. Notes on totemism in eastern Australia. In Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. 59 (1929), pp. 399-415.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Wafer, Jim, and Amanda Lissarrague. 2008. A handbook of Aboriginal languages of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
  • Walsh, Michael. 1981. Maps of Australia and Tasmania. In Language atlas of the Pacific area Pt 1, eds S. A. Wurm and Shirô Hattori. Canberra: Australian Academy of the Humanities.
Status: 
Potential data
Location
State / Territory: 
NSW
Location information: 
On the southern border of Dunghutti country lies Biripi which was spoken south from a line drawn between Telegraph Point and the country east of where Tamworth is today (Lissarrague 2000). Birpai - The tribe on the Hastings River (Radcliffe-Brown 1929:400). Port Macquarie (Branch 1887:348 as cited in Lissarrague 2010:10). Rollands Plains to the Manning River (Enright 1932:102 as cited in Lissarrague 2010:10). spoken about Gloucester (Holmer 1966:1). Mouth of Manning River at Taree, inland to near Gloucester; principally on south side of river, also on the Forbes, upper Hastings, and Wilson rivers (Tindale 1974).
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Many Rivers Aboriginal Language Centre
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list 1 - unclear status
Text Collection None 0
Grammar None 0
Audio-visual Less than 1 1
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 
-
Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan Worimi Worimi (Birbay)
Dixon (2002) CENTRAL NEW SOUTH WALES GROUP Awabagal/Gadjang subgroup* Birpay Gadjang (Kattang) Holmer (1966) further dialects: Warimi, Birbay
Wurm (1994)
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Kuri Birbay Gadang [dialects: Gadang, Awabakal, Birbay, Warrimi]
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Kuri Biribai
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Kuri Birripi (Bilpai, Birpai)
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Kuri Birpai