S44: Dhudhuroa

AIATSIS code: 
AIATSIS reference name: 


Thesaurus heading language
Thesaurus heading people
ABN name
ABS name
Horton name
Jaitmatang (Duduroa)
Ethnologue name
ISO 639-3 code
Tindale name
Tindale (1974)
Dhudhuroa, Tharamirttong, Tharamittong, Tharo-mattay, Jeenong-metong (strong-footed ones), Dyinning-middhang, Ginning-matong (initial g read as dj), Theddora mittung (hordal term, see Jaitmathang).
O'Grady et al (1966)
Other sources
Dhudhuroa, Do.dor.dee, Dodora, Dodoro, Toutourrite, Theddora-mittung, Duduroa [Clark 2005:10] Do.dor.dee (Robinson 1840), Dhuthuro'wa', Dhoo-dhoo-ro'wa', Theddora-mittung (Howitt 1904:77) [Clark 2009:201]
Djiningmiddang tribe, possible further name: Yaithmathang, Jaitmatang, Duduroa, Djilamatang, Kandangora, Omeo tribe, Theddora, Yaitmathang, Dhudhruwa, Dhuduroa, Do, dor, dee, Dodora, Dodoro, Toutourrite, Theddora mittung, Duduruwa, Tharamirttong, Tharamittong, Tharo mattay, Jeenong metong, Dyinning middhang, Ginning matong

Eira (2008:153-154) discusses the issue of establishing the language identity of the historical data assembled for the programs, much of which is identified by location rather than language name. For example, data being treated as Waywurru is variously labelled Pallanganmiddang, Upper Murray, Minubuddong, Kilure, Yackandandah, Wangaratta, Robertson, Andrews and Yackandandah Bank Museum. Data treated as Dhudhuroa is variously labelled Dhudhuroa and 'Barwidgee, from Wodonga along Upper Murray'. She points out that, 'given the likely reality of linguistic relationships prior to colonisation as well as the status of the 19th century records...similarities between the lists and dissimilarities between the groups are sufficient to assert a basic division into two language groups without controversy'.

Clark (2009) examines the literature on the language situation of the Omeo district of Victoria, sorting through the various analyses of groups and languages and the many name variations. He concludes that there were two languages in the area: Dhudhuroa and Yaithmathang S43, with Yaithmathang being a dialect of Ngarigu S46. He sets out the five groups associated with Dhudhuroa: Boengar-mittung, Djila-mittung, Ginning-mittung, Tarrer-mittung and Theddora-mittung; and the two groups associated with Yaithmathang: Kandangora-mittung and Yatte-mittung.

Mathews (1909, in Blake and Reid 2002:213) identifies Minyambuta S90 as a dialect of Dhudhuroa, though Clark (2005), following Blake and Reid (1999), treats it as a 'probable dialect' of Waywurru (Pallanganmiddang) S89, and Gardner (1997:9) says it is the name of a group, also known as the Mogullumbitch or Mokeallumbeets, who spoke the same language as the Gundungerre S43.

Mathews also says that the language of the Walgalu S47 'resembled partly the Dhudhuroa and partly the Dyirringan S51' (Mathews 1909:278).


  • Blake, Barry & Julie Reid. 1999. Pallanganmiddang: a language of the Upper Murray. Aboriginal History 23:1-14.
  • Blake, Barry & Julie Reid. 2002. The Dhudhuroa language of northeastern Victoria: a description based on historical sources. Aboriginal History 26:(177)-210.
  • Clark, Ian. 2005. Aboriginal language areas in Victoria - a reconstruction: a report to Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages. Melbourne: Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages.
  • Clark, Ian. 2009. Dhudhuroa and Yaithmathang languages and social groups in north-east Victoria - a reconstruction. Aboriginal History 33:201-229.
  • Eira, Christina. 2008. Not tigers - sisters! Advances in the interpretation of historical source spellings for Dhudhuroa and Waywurru. Aboriginal History 32:151-164.
  • Gardner, P. D. 1997. Some notes on Victorian alpine aborigines. Ensay, Vic: Ngarak Press. (p GAR)
  • Mathews, R.H. 1909. The Dhudhuroa language of Victoria. American Anthropologist, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 278-284. (B M429.78/P2)
State / Territory: 
Location information: 

... the Dhudhuroa was spoken by the Dyinningmiddhang tribe on Mitta Mitta and Kiewa rivers, and along the Murray valley from Albury to Jingellic. Minyambuta, a dialect of the Dhudhuroa, was the speech of the tribes occupying the Buffalo, King, Ovens, and Broken rivers, with the tributaries of all these streams (Mathews 1909:278 as cited in Blake and Reid 2002:179).



The Dhudhuroa and WayWurru Language Program has been in progress since October 1998.

Barry Blake, (Victorias Aboriginal Corporation for Languages)
Indigenous organisations: 

Victorian Corporation for Aboriginal Languages: https://www.vacl.org.au/home

Year Source Speaker numbers
2004NILSa few

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Less than 20 pages 1
Text Collection None 0
Grammar A few articles 1
Audio-visual None 0
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available

Blake, Barry. 2002. The Dhudhuroa language of northeastern Victoria: a description based on historical sources. Aboriginal History. 26. 177-210.

Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)          
Dixon (2002)   UPPER MURRAY GROUP   Dhudhuroa (Djiningmiddang tribe, possible further name: Yaithmathang) Dhudhuroa (Djining-middang tribe, possible further name: Yaithmathang)
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan Dhuduroa   Dhuduroa  
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Dhuduroa   Dhuduroa  
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Yaithmathangic   Dhudhruwa  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Yaithmathangic   Duduruwa (Dhudhuroa)  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)