A68: Kukatja

AIATSIS code: 
A68
AIATSIS reference name: 
Kukatja

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Name
ABN name
-
ABS name
Kukatja
Horton name
Kukatja
Ethnologue name
Kukatja
ISO 639-3 code
kux
Tindale name
Kokatja
Thesaurus heading language
Kukatja language A68
Thesaurus heading (old)
Kukatja language (A68) (WA SF52-02)
Tindale (1974)
Gogada, Gogadja, Gugudja, Gogoda, Gugadja, Ku-kuruba (of Ngalia tribe), Pardoo (applied to western hordes), Julbaritja (a general term from ['julbari] meaning south, term not tribally limited), Julbre (Capell's version), Ilbaridja, Nambulatji (language name), Bedengo (lit. 'rock hole people' implying shiftlessness), Bidong, Bidungo, Peedona, Peedong, Pidung, Pidunga, Manggai (name of a key southern watering place probably near 127°40'E. x 21°20'S), Wangkatjunga (southwestern hordes), Wangatjunga, Wangatunga, Wangkatunga, Wangkadjungga, Wankutjunga, Wanaeka, Wangu, Panara (general term for grass seed gatherers; see additional note under Northern Territory tribe Ngardi), Bunara, Boonara.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
kuka1246
Other sources
Gugada [<ozbib>Platt 1968$4631</ozbib>] Gogodja, Kukaja [<ozbib>Dixon 2011:49$7367</ozbib>]
Synonyms
Gugadja, Gogodj, Kokatja, Gogada, Gogadja, Gogadya, Gogoda, Gogodja, Gugada, Gugadji, Gugudja, Kokata, Koonggada, Kukacha, Kukada, Kukadja, Kukaja, Kukata, Kukatji, Kukuruba, Ku kuruba, Pardoo, Julbaritja, Julbre, Ilbaridja, Nambulatji, Bedengo, Bidong, Bidungo, Peedona, Peedong, Pidung, Pidunga, Manggai, Wangkatjunga, Wangatjunga, Wangatunga, Wangkatunga, Wangkadjungga, Wankutjunga, Wanaeka, Wangu, Panara, Bunara, Boonara
Comment
Comments: 
Kukatja (A68) is a variety of the Western Desert language A80 in the north of Western Australia. In 1991 Kukatja (A68) was spoken by about 1000 people at Wirrumanu (formerly the Balgo Mission) and also at Yaka Yaka, Malarn (Lake Gregory), Billiluna, Kiwirrkura, Lamarnparnta, Ngarantjadu, Ngirrpi, Piparr and Walkarli (Greene, Tramacchi and Gill, 1991:44). In 2011 Kukatja was spoken at Kunawarritji and Balgo (Dixon, 2011:49). Kukatja (A68) and Kukatja C7 are described as separate dialects of the Western Desert language A80. Hansen and Hansen write that the Kukatja (A68) people who settled at Balgo Hills were Pintupi (C10) who travelled north (in the early 20th century, where the Catholic Mission was later established. They were called Kukatja by Walmatjari A66 and others with the translation 'those who use the word "kuka" (for meat)' (1975:22). Another group known as Ngalia C2, Mayutjarra and Kukatja C7 were located east of Pintupi country, to the west of Haasts Bluff (Hansen and Hansen, 1975:22). Note that items on Kukatja C7 may be described as being about Kukatja (A68) in MURA.
References: 
  • Greene, Gracie, Joe Tramacchi and Lucille Gill. 1991. Roughtail : The Dreaming of the Roughtail Lizard and other stories told by the Kukatja.
  • Hansen KC & LE Hansen. 1975. The Core of Pintupi Grammar. Alice Springs: Institute for Aboriginal Development.
  • Dixon, Sally. 2011. How to read and write Pilbara languages. South Hedland: Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
WA
Location information: 

Gregory Hills Area, Balgo Hills area,127° 51'E x 20°09'S on the fringe of Great Sandy Desert (Peile according to Oates) About Gregory Lake and east to the area of the Pallotine Mission at Balgo North to Billiluna with a boundary water shared with the Djaru at Ngaimangaima, 12 miles (20 km.) south of Kandimalal (Wolf Creek Meteorite Crater); west to the Canning Stock Route wells from Godfrey Tank, n.n. ['Koninara], south to Well 40, n.n. ['Marawuru] (Tindale 1974). Contemporary location: Kunawarritji, Balgo (Dixon 2011:49).

Maps: 
  • Tindale, Norman. 1974. Tribal boundaries in Aboriginal Australia. Canberra: Division of National Mapping, Department of National Development.
Catalogue
Links
Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981): 

Bunggura (A28 ) in Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981).

Kukatja

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:

This language has the same name as another language in southern Northern Territory and South Australia, which is closely related to the Kukata language. Gogoda (T, RLS), Gogodja (Peile), Gugadja (AC), Kukatja (AC)

Classification of the language:

Western Desert, Wati subgroup

Identification codes:

Oates '73: 56.10a

AIAS: A.068

Capell: A16

Present number and distribution of speakers:

Balgo Hills (Mission) mostly, also at Billiluna, Sturt Creek, Papunya

Milliken, 1972 -- 183

Oates, 1973 -- about 300

Black, 1979 -- 300

People who have worked intensively on the language:

Father Peile, Balgo Mission

Practical orthography:

None established.

Word lists:

E.A. Worms, Fr. Peile

Grammar or sketch grammar:

Fr. Peile

Material available on the language:

Hansen, Kenneth C. & Lesley E. Hansen. 1975. A comparison of Western Desert dialects. Chart 2, pp.28-29 in their Core of Pintupi Grammar. IAD.

Nekes, H. & E.A. Worms. 1953. Australian languages. Fribourg: Anthropos-Institut. Micro-Bibliotheca Anthropos vol.10. 1059p.

Peile, Antony R. 1976. Gugadja ethno-botany appendix. vii p. xeroxed ts. From Ethno-botany workshop, 15-16 May 1976, AIAS.

---------- (1000 word vocabulary)

---------- (phonology and grammar statement, draft form) Tindale, N.B. 1932. Journal of an expedition to Mt Leibig, Central Australia, to do anthropological research. Aug 1932. 374p. + suppl. notes. ms. (Kukatja, Jumu, Ngalia, Anmatjera, Pintubi and Aranda) (May be Kukatja (S.A.)?)

---------- 1952-54. Field journal of N.B. Tindale: 18th expedition under the auspices of Board for Anthropological Research, University of Adelaide and University of California at Los Angeles, 1952-54. 1233+340p. ts., ms. (340p. of suppl. data incl. parallel vocabularies of 30 tribes, 180 words in each)

Western Australia. Chief Secretary's Department. 1934. Native tribes and boundaries of their districts. (File 384/34) (lists tribes with approximate location)

Worms, E.A. 1950. Feuer und feuerzeuger in sage und brauch der Nordwest Australier. Anthropos 45:145-164. (includes list of words relating to fire-making in Mangala, Gogadja, Garadjeri, Bidongo, Walmatjari)

---------- 1953. H. Nekes and E.A. Worms' Australian languages. Anthropos 48:956-970. (notes on suffixing languages and outlines of grammar)

---------- 1958. Language of the Gogadja tribe (south and south east of Gregory Salt Lake). 98p. ms. Manly. (AIAS) (English-Gogadja vocabulary)

Literacy material:

None.

Kathy Menning (comp.) and David Nash (ed.) 1981. © IAD Press

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledges IAD Press for permission to use this material in AUSTLANG.

Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988): 

Yinhawangka (A48 ) in Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988).

8.7 Kukatja / Gugadja

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:

Gogada (Worms), Gogodja (Worms), Gogoda (Tindale, Oates), Gogodja (Peile), Gugadja (Capell, Berndt), Gugudja (Capell), Kokatja (Tindale), Kukaja (McGregor), Kukatja (Capell, Oates, Peile)

This language has the same name as another language in southern Northern Territory and South Australia, which is closely related to it. According to Peile (pers.comm.) the term "Kukatja" is also applied to Western Luritja (N.T.); Worms (e.g. 1959:306) confuses this Kukatja with the Kukatja now spoken at Balgo. Possible alternatives:, Nambulatji (Tindale), Maiulatara, Mulatara, According to Peile (pers.comm.), Nambulatji is a language similar to Warlpiri and Ngardi, while Maiulatara and Mulatara are not Kukatja, but more southerly dialects of the Western Desert language.

Classification of the language:

Pama Nyungan family, Western Desert, Wati subgroup

Identification codes:

Oates 1973: 56.10a

AIAS: A68

Capell: A16

Present number and distribution of speakers:

Most speakers live at Balgo Hills (Mission), but there are also some at Billiluna, Lake Gregory, Christmas Creek, Fitzroy Crossing, Kintore, Yuendumu, and Papunya.

Milliken (1972) - 183

Oates (1973) - about 300

Black (1979) - 300

People who have worked intensively on the language:

Father Ernest Worms, 1936-1937, Billiluna and Balgo Hills area.

Father Anthony Peile, from 1972 to present, Balgo Mission

Bernard Lefort, from 1985 to 1986, Balgo Mission

Practical orthography:

During 1983 and 1984 the Balgo Community developed and decided on an orthography for Kukatja, with assistance from K. Hansen, H. Nagomara, Fr. A. Peile, and B. Lefort. This is a slight variation from the South Kimberley orthography (see pages 4 to 6 above for a description), and differs slightly from the earlier orthography developed by Peile.

Word lists:

Worms (1950), Peile (nd a). Peile is in the process of preparing a detailed dictionary and encyclopaedia.

Textual material:

Moyle (1984), Peile (nd c)

Grammar or sketch grammar:

Peile (nd b)

Material available on the language:

Bindon, P. & Peile, A. 1986. Plants used by the Kukatja to make fire. Records of the Western Australian Museum 12 (4). 499-502

Hansen, K. 1984. Communicability of some Western Desert communalects. In Hudson, J & Pym, N. (eds), Language survey. (Work Papers of SIL-AAB, B-11) Darwin: SIL. 1-112.

Hansen, K. & Hansen, L.E. 1975. Core of Pintupi Grammar. Alice Springs: IAD.

Moyle, R. 1984. Jumping to conclusions. In Kassler, J.C. & Stubbington, J. (eds), Problems and solutions: Occasional essays in musicology presented to Alice M. Moyle. Sydney: Hale and Iremonger. 51-58.

Nekes, H. & Worms, E.A. 1953. Australian languages. (Micro-Bibliotheca Anthropos, 10) Fribourg: Anthropos-Institut. 1058pp. AIAS MF 4.

Peile, Anthony R. nd a. [1000 word vocabulary]. manuscript.

_____ .nd b. [Phonology and grammar statement, draft form]. manuscript.

_____ .nd c. [Transcription of tape A2247a, song texts]. typescript. (Restricted)

_____ .1965. [Letter to AIAS.] typescript. AIAS.

_____ .1976. Gugadja ethno-botany appendix. [From Ethno-botany workshop, 15-16 May 1976, AIAS] vii p. xeroxed typescript.

_____ .1978. Gugadja Aborigines and frogs. Herpetofauna 10. 9-14.

_____ .1979a. Colours that cure. Hemisphere 23. 214-217.

_____ .1979b. Australian desert Aborigines and Moloch horridus. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 14. 73-77.

_____ .1980. Preliminary remarks on the ethno-botany of the Gugadja Aborigines at Balgo, Western Australia. Western Australian Herbarium Research Notes 1 (3). 59-64

_____ .1985a. Kukatja botanical terms and concepts. typescript.

_____ .1985b. Le concept du vent, du souffle, et de l'ame chez lez Aborigenes dans le desert de l'Australie. Bulletin d'Ethnomedecine 33. 75-83.

_____ .forthcoming a. Gugadja terms for numerals, clothing and introduced foods. In Fodor, I. & Hagege. (eds), Language reform - history and future. Supplementary volume. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.

_____ .forthcoming b. Body and soul - an Australian Aboriginal view. Perth: Hesperian Press.

Petri, H. 1969. Research in the Kimberley region 1969, focusing on Australian Aboriginal ritual and mythology. Anthropology News 6 2/3.

Platt, J.T. 1967. The Kukata-Kukatja distinction. Oceania 38. 61-64.

Thieberger, N. 1987. Handbook of WA Aboriginal languages (south of the Kimberley region). first draft. typescript. Mt. Lawley: Institute of Applied Aboriginal Studies.

Tindale, N.B. 1932. Journal of an expedition to Mt Leibig, Central Australia, to do anthropological research. Aug 1932. 374p. + suppl. notes. manuscript. (Kukatja, Jumu, Ngalia, Anmatjera, Pintubi and Aranda. May be Kukatja (S.A.).)

_____ .1952-54. Field journal of N.B. Tindale: 18th expedition under the auspices of Board for Anthropological Research, University of Adelaide and University of California at Los Angeles, 1952-54. 1233+340p. typescript., manuscript. (340p. of supplementary data including parallel vocabularies of 30 tribes, 180 words in each)

Western Australia. Chief Secretary's Department. 1934. Native tribes and boundaries of their districts. (File 384/34) (lists tribes with approximate location.)

Wiminytji & Peile, A.R. 1978. A desert Aborigine's view of health and nutrition. Journal of Anthropological Research 34 (4). 497-523.

Worms, E.A. 1950. Feuer und Feuerzeuger in sage und brauch der Nordwest Australier. Anthropos 45. 145-164.

_____ .1953. H. Nekes and E.A. Worms' Australian languages. Anthropos 48. 956-970.

_____ .1958. Language of the Gogadja tribe (south and south east of Gregory Salt Lake). 98p. manuscript. AIAS Ms 28.

_____ .1959. Zeitschrift fur Missconswissenschaft und Religiousmissionschaft. Munster 43(4). 296-309.

Language programme:

A bilingual programme is currently being run in the Balgo school. A linguist was employed by Catholic Education in an advisory capacity during 1985 and 1986. Since then the position lapsed for some time, but has recently been filled.

Language learning material:

Balgo Adult Education Centre (Kutjungkarriya Nintirri). Newsletter. (A quarterly publication since 1981). New name: Willumana Balgo Newsletter.

Literacy material:

The following is a list of literacy materials produced to November 1985. (No indication was given as to author.)

Karakurlu kalyu - Salt water. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Wartilpayi - The hunter. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Wiltja - The shelter. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Taputjunku - The race. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Victor marrka murtilya - Victor, the strong boy. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Raymondkura bike - Raymond's bike. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Yirraru Willie - Sad Willie. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Pamarr tjarlu - The mountain. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Ngilypi kamu yirna - The old man and the old woman. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Tjarlu lanyma - The big fight. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Murunypa Joseph - Greedy Joseph. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Yumpalypa Adam - Lazy Adam. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Kawarlirri - Lost. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Iantu ngalurnu kanu - Ian catches a lizard. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Kurrku - The cave. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Peter Marnmarlyarringu - Peter gets hurt. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Peter Yitjipungkupayi - Peter the bully. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Ngayukutju tjirlany - My lunch. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Ngaatjangkura Ben - Here is Ben. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Latju - The witchetty grub. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Yutjapilaku waraka - The hospital worker. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Piwi - Dunbi the owl. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Lingka kamu kanu - The snake and the lizard. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Marlulura nyangin mayaruku - Kangaroo looks for home. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Nyawultjirriya marlu - Counting kangaroos. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Nyawultjirriya - Counting book. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Murtilya kamu puruku - The boy and the frog. Derby: Kimberley Educational Printing Service.

Kulila 1, 2, 3, 4.

Kukatja reader. [Includes vocabulary and grammar drills, and cassette.]

Kukatja picture vocabulary.

McGregor, William. 1988 Handbook of Kimberley Languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. © Author.

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledge William McGregor for permission to use his material in AUSTLANG.

Programs
Activities: 

Kimberley Language Resource Centre produced Kukatjangka Wangka: an interactive program for teaching an indigenous language (2001).

People: 
Anthony Peile, Hilaire Valiquette, Kimberley Language Resource Centre
Indigenous organisations: 
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates300
1984Senate300
1990Schmidtincl in Western Desert
1996Census570
2001Census609
2004NILS>1000
2005Estimate-
2006Census447

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Large (more than 200 pages) 4
Text Collection Small (20-100 pages) 2
Grammar Sketch grammar (less than 100 pages) 2
Audio-visual More than 10 3
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 

Peile, Anthony. 1971. Introduction to Gugadja.

Dictionary: 

Valiquette, Hilaire. 1993. A basic Kukatja to English dictionary. WA: Luurnpa Catholic School.

Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan South-West Wati Kukatja  
Dixon (2002)       Kukatja The Western Desert language. dialects: (a) Warnman, (b) Yulparitja, (c) Manjtjiltjara (or Martu Wangka), (d) Kartutjarra, (e) Kukatja, (f) Pintupi, (g) Luritja, (h) Ngaatjatjarr, (i) Ngaanjatjarra, G) Wangkatha, (k) Wangatja, (l) Ngaliya, (m) Pitjantjatjarra, (n) Yankuntjatjarra, (o) Kukarta
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan South-West   Gugadja  
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan South-West Wati/Western Desert Gugadja  
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Western Desert Proper Wati Gugadja  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Southwest (or Nyungic) Western Desert Language Gogoda  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Southwest Wati Gogoda