P2: Torres Strait Creole

AIATSIS code: 
P2
AIATSIS reference name: 
Torres Strait Creole

tabs_horizontal

Name
ABN name
-
ABS name
Torres Strait Creole
Horton name
-
Ethnologue name
Torres Strait Creole
ISO 639-3 code
tcs
Tindale name
-
Thesaurus heading language
Torres Strait Creole language P2
Thesaurus heading (old)
-
Tindale (1974)
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
torr1261
Other sources
Yumblatok (Ober) [ILDB]
Synonyms
Yumplatok, Yumblatok
Comment
Comments: 
Torres Strait Creole is the most widely spoken Indigenous language in Queensland, used by over thirty thousand people as a first, second or third language. It is a direct descendant of Pacific Pidgin English, the lingua franca of the Pacific from the turn of the 19th century when it arrived in the Torres Strait. It became the first language of a generation of children and thus expanded its functions beyond a contact language (the pidgin) and became Torres Strait Creole. Due to its provenance it is related to Tok Pisin in New Guinea, Bislama in Vanuatu and Solomon Islands Pijin. Torres Strait Creole has been spoken by six generations and is one of the three Indigenous languages of the Torres Strait, along with Kala Yagaw Ya Y1 / Kalaw Kawaw Ya Y2 and eastern Meriam Mir Y3, although it has less status than those traditional languages (Shnukal, 2004:7). This language is also known by the names Broken (P2) and Yumpla Tok (P2).
References: 
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
QLD
TSI
Location information: 

... the first language of most of the younger Aboriginal and Islander people [in] the Cape York communities of Bamaga, Seisa, Umagico (Alau), Injinoo (Cowal Creek) and Mandingu (New Mapoon) (Shnukal, 2004:7).

Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
-
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census1240
2004NILSmany
2005Estimate-
2006Census6042

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Small (20-100 pages) 2
Text Collection    
Grammar    
Audio-visual More than 10 3
Manuscript note: 
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 

Shnukal, Anna. 1994. Torres Strait Creole. In Macquarie Aboriginal words: a dictionary of words from Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, eds. N Thieberger and W McGregor, 374-398. North Ryde: Macquarie Library.

Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)       Torres Strait Creole  
Dixon (2002)          
Wurm (1994)          
Walsh (1981)          
Oates (1975)          
Wurm (1972)          
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)