E1: Geawegal

AIATSIS code: 
E1
AIATSIS reference name: 
Geawegal

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Name
ABN name
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ABS name
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Horton name
Geawegal
Ethnologue name
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ISO 639-3 code
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Tindale name
Geawegal
Thesaurus heading language
Geawegal language E1
Thesaurus heading (old)
Geawegal language (E1) (NSW SI56-01)
Tindale (1974)
Keawaikal, ['keawai] = no, Keawekal, Geawagal, Geawe-gal, Garewagal (not Gweagal, a horde of the Eora between Botany Bay and Port Jackson).
O'Grady et al (1966)
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Glottocode
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Other sources
Kawawaykal [Wafer & Lissarrague 2008]
Synonyms
Garewagal, Geawagal, Geawe gal, Gweagal, Gweawegal, Gwegal, Keawaikal, Keawekal, Kawawaykal
Comment
Comments: 
Lissarrague treats Geawegal (E1) as a people name, describing Hunter River - Lake Macquarie S99 as the language of the people known as Awabakal S66, Kuringgai S62, Wonnarua S63 and possibly Geawegal (2006:13-14). In her later work (Wafer and Lissarrague 2008:165 - 166), Kayawaykal (E1) is treated as the name of a dialect of the Hunter River - Lake Macquarie language S99. Wafer and Lissarrague report that the only available linguistic data on Kayawaykal (E1) are six morphemes in Fison and Howitt (1880). As noted by Wafer and Lissarrague (2008:109, 165 - 166), Geawegal (E1) was often confused with Gwiyagal D63. Consequently, some resources identified as being about Geawegal may actually be about Gwiyagal D63.
References: 
  • Fison, L. & A.W. Howitt. 1880. Kamilaroi and Kurnai: group marriage and relationship, and marriage by elopement... also the Kurnai tribe: their customs in peace and war. Melbourne: George Robertson.
  • Howitt, Alfred William. 1904. The native tribes of south-east Australia. London: Macmillan.
  • Lissarrague, Amanda. 2006. A salvage grammar and wordlist of the language from the Hunter River and Lake Macquarie. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Wafer, Jim, and Amanda Lissarrague. 2008. A handbook of Aboriginal languages of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
Status: 
Potential data
Location
State / Territory: 
NSW
Location information: 
Northern tributaries of the Hunter River to Murru-rundi; at Muswellbrook, Aberdeen, Scone, and Mount Royal Range (Tindale 1974). part of the valley of the Hunter River extending to each lateral watershed, and from twenty-five to thirty miles along the valley on each side of Glendon (Fison & Howitt 1880:279 as quoted in Wafer & Lissarrague 2008:165).
Maps: 
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Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
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People: 
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Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listLess than 20 pages1
Text CollectionNone0
GrammarNone0
Audio-visualNone0
Manuscript note: 
not available
Grammar: 
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Dictionary: 
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Classification
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)
Dixon (2002)
Wurm (1994)
Walsh (1981)
Oates (1975)
Wurm (1972)
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)