S66: Awabakal

AIATSIS code: 
S66
AIATSIS reference name: 
Awabakal

tabs_horizontal

Name
ABN name
Awabakal language
ABS name
Other Australian Indigenous Languages, nec (Awabakal)
Horton name
-
Ethnologue name
Awabakal
ISO 639-3 code
awk
Tindale name
Awabakal
Thesaurus heading language
Awabakal language S66
Thesaurus heading (old)
Awabakal language (S66) (NSW SI56-05)
Tindale (1974)
Awaba (place name of Lake Macquarie), Awabagal, 'Lake Macquarie, Newcastle' tribe, Kuringgai (see above), Minyowa (horde at Newcastle), Minyowie, Kuri (general term meaning 'man' in several tribes north of and around Sydney.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Awabagal, Lake Macquarie
Glottocode
awab1243
Other sources
Awarbukal, Arwarburkarl [ALRRC] 'the Hunter River-Lake Macquarie language', HRLM [Wafer & Lissarrague 2010]
Synonyms
Awabagal, Other Australian Indigenous Languages, Awaba, Kuri, Kuringgai, Lake Macquarie, Awarbukal, Arwarburkarl, Newcastle tribe
Comment
Comments: 
Arposio (2008:10) describes Awabakal as a dialect within a larger language group including Gadhang / Kattang E67 to the north and extending southwards from Newcastle down the coast to the northern shores of Botany Bay, reflecting Fraser's (1892) 'Kuringgai' group. Lissarrague (2006) describes the Hunter River - Lake Macquarie language S99 spoken by people now known as Awabakal, Kuringgai S62, Wanarruwa S63 and possibly Kayawaykal E1. In her later work (Wafer and Lissarrague 2008:159 - 160) Awabakal is treated as a dialect name of the 'Hunter River - Lake Macquarie language'. Wafer and Lissarrague (2008) also address the confusion over the relationship between the Hunter River - Lake Macquarie language S99 and the 'Lower North Coast language' (i.e. Gathang E67, Birrpay E3, Warrimay E2 and Guringay E95), indicating these are two distinct languages, and Wafer and Lissarrague (2010) disambiguate the different uses of the term 'Kuringgai' S62.
References: 
  • Arposio, Alex. 2008. A grammar for the Awabakal language. Cardiff, N.S.W.: Arwarbukarl Cultural Resource Association.
  • Arwarbukarl Cultural Resource Association. 2010. Nupaliyan palii Awabakalkoba = Teach yourself Awabakal. Cardiff, N.S.W. : Arwarbukarl Cultural Resource Association.
  • Fraser, John ed. 1892. An Australian language as spoken by the Awabakal, the people of Awaba or Lake Macquarie. Sydney: Charles Potter, Government Printer.
  • Lissarrague, Amanda. 2006. A salvage grammar and wordlist of the language from the Hunter River and Lake Macquarie. Nambucca Heads, N.S.W. : Muurrbay Language and Culture Centre.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Wafer, Jim, and Amanda Lissarrague. 2008. A handbook of Aboriginal languages of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
  • Wafer, Jim, and Amanda Lissarrague. 2010. The Kuringgai puzzle. In Indigenous language and social identity: papers in honour of Michael Walsh, eds B. Baker, I. Mushin, M. Harvey & R. Gardner. Pacific Linguistics 626. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NSW
Location information: 
Hunter's River, Lake Macquarie &c (in Threlkeld 1834 as quoted by Lissarrague 2006:12). Lake Macquarie, south of Newcastle, N.S.W. (not Port Macquarie) (Tindale 1974). ... around Newcastle and the mouth of the Hunter River, around Lake Macquarie, down to around Wyong-Tuggerah Lake, and up the lower Hunter Valley to somewhere just beyond or around Maitland. (Awarbukarl Cultural Resource Assoc. 2010:4). Lake Macquarie and the Hunter River (Haslam, in Arposio 2008:12).
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
Awabakal Cultural Resource Association is carrying out language revival work and currently developing a computer-based language learning material, Miromaa (2007). Many Rivers Aboriginal Language Centre is running the Awabakal & Wonnarua (HRLM) Language Revitalisation program and is currently producing 'A Learner's Guide to the language from the Hunter River and Lake Macquarie (HRLM)' based on Lissarrague's published grammar (2007). Arwarbukarl Cultural Resource Association has produced a 'plain English' grammar and language learning guide for descendants of Awabakal speakers.
People: 
Amanda Lissarrague, Alex Arposio, Awabakal Cultural Resource Association(Daryn McKenny), Many Rivers Aboriginal Language Centre, Percy Haslam, Reverend Dr John Fraser, L.E. Threlkeld
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate0
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Small (20-100 pages) 2
Text Collection Medium (100-200 pages) 3
Grammar Large grammar (more than 200 pages) 4
Audio-visual None 0
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available (vocabulary)
Grammar: 

Threlkeld, L.E. 1892. An Australian language as spoken by the Awabakal, the people of Awaba or Lake Macquarie (near Newcastle, New South Wales): being an account of their language, traditions and customs. Sydney: Charles Potter, Government Printer.

Lissarrague, Amanda. 2006. A Salvage Grammar and Wordlist of the Language from the Hunter River & Lake Macquarie. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Cooperative.

Arposio, Alex. 2008. A grammar for the Awabakal language. Cardiff, NSW: Arwarbukarl Cultural Resource Association.

Arposio, Alex. 2008. An introduction to the Awabakal langauge. Cardiff, NSW: Arwarbukarl Cultural Resource Association.

Arposio, Alex. 2011 [2010]. Palii Ngarabangaliingeyn Awabakalkoba: Understanding Awabakal language. Newcastle: Miromaa Aboriginal Language and Technology Centre.

Dictionary: 
Threlkeld, L.E. 1892. An Australian language as spoken by the Awabakal, the people of Awaba or Lake Macquarie (near Newcastle, New South Wales): being an account of their language, traditions and customs. Sydney: Charles Potter, Government Printer. Maynard, John. 2004. Awabakal word finder: an Aboriginal dictionary and dreaming stories companion. Southport, QLS: Keeaira Press. Roberts, David Andres. English-Awabakal Dictionary. http://www.newcastle.edu.au/centre/awaba/awaba/group/amrhd/awaba/language/dictionary/index.html. Awarbukarl Cultural Resource Association. 2009 [2008]. Awabakal dictionary: research edition. Cardiff: Awarbukarl Cultural Resource Association Incorporated.
Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan Worimi Awabakal Awabakal [dialects: Awabagal, Cameeragal, Wonarua]
Dixon (2002) CENTRAL NEW SOUTH WALES GROUP Awabagal/Gadjang subgroup* Awabagal Awabagal Threlkeld (1834) further dialects: Cameeragal, Wonarua
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Awabakal
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Kuri Awabakal Gadang [dialects: Gadang, Awabakal, Birbay, Warrimi]
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Kuri Awaba
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Kuri Awabakal
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Kuri Awabakal