K10: Warrwa

AIATSIS code: 
K10
AIATSIS reference name: 
Warrwa

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Name
ABN name
-
ABS name
Kimberley Area Languages, nec (Warrwa)
Horton name
Warwa
Ethnologue name
Warrwa
ISO 639-3 code
wwr
Tindale name
Warwa
Thesaurus heading language
Warrwa language K10
Thesaurus heading (old)
Warrwa / Warwa language (K10) (WA SE 51-07)
Tindale (1974)
Waruwa (valid alternative when r not rolled), Warwai, Warrwai, Kolaruma ('coast people'; name given by Ongkomi; in some local languages ['kolar] means west).
O'Grady et al (1966)
Wa:rwa, Warwai, Warrwai
Glottocode
warr1258
Other sources
Synonyms
Kimberley Area Languages, Warwa, Kolaruma, Warrwai, Waruwa, Warwai, Wa:rwa
Comment
Comments: 
Warrwa is possibly a dialect of Nyigina K3, although it shows a number of differences (Capell (1940:412ff). McGregor (2010:209) categorises Warrwa as one of the Eastern Nyulnyulan languages, along with Nyikina K3, Yawuru K1 and Jukun K2. He contrasts these with the Western Nyulnyulan languages, Bardi K15, Jawi K16, Jabirrjabirr K8, Nyulnyul K13, Nimanburru K9 and Ngumbarl K4.
References: 
  • Capell, Arthur. 1940. The classification of languages in north and north-west Australia. Oceania 10(3):241-272; 10(4):404-433.
  • Harvey, Mark. 2008. Non-Pama-Nyungan Languages: land-language associations at colonisation. AILEC 0802.
  • McGregor, William B. 2010. The semantics, pragmatics and evolution of two verbless negative constructions in Nyulnyul. Oceanic Linguistics 49(1):205-232.
  • Stokes, Bronwyn. 1982. A description of Nyigina, a language of the West Kimberley, Western Australia (MFE/B52), Australian National University: PhD. (MFE/B52).
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
WA
Location information: 
... around Meda station (Stokes 1984:9). The general associations of Warrwa were to the Meda River and Alexander Creek. Eastward limits: Sources in 2007 confirmed that Kimberley Downs homestead was associated with Warrwa, but that Warrwa associations ceased immediately to the east of the homestead. Southward limits: The divide between the Meda and Fitzroy drainages. There was some debate over the associations of Derby as between Warrwa and Nyikina. Warrwa owners claimed Derby as Warrwa. Warrwa has substantial saltwater association apart from Derby. Nyikina has only minimal saltwater associations apart from Derby. In Australia, there is a general congruence between ecological oppositions and changes in land-language affiliations. Therefore, the overall evidence suggests that Derby was associated with Warrwa and not Nyikina. Northward limits: There is no positive information on this topic (Harvey ASEDA 802).
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988): 

Mangula (A23 ) in Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988).

4.10 Warrwa

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:
Warrwai, Warrwi (Bates), Waruwa, Warwa (AIAS, Capell, Kerr, O'Grady, Oates, Robinson), Wa:rwa (Capell), Warwai, Warwar (Robinson)
Linguistically speaking, Warrwa is possibly a dialect of Nyigina, although it shows a number of differences (Capell 1940:412ff).
Classification of the language:
Nyulnyulan family
Identification codes:
AIAS: K10
Oates 1973: 49.4
Capell: K16
Present number and distribution of speakers:
Stokes - less than 5
People who have worked intensively on the language:
Arthur Capell, early 1940s
Nora Kerr mid to late 1960s
Bronwyn Stokes, mid to late 1970s, Derby
Bernard Rawlins, 1988, Derby
Practical orthography:
None currently in use; the Dampier Land variant of the North Kimberley orthography would be suitable.
Word lists:
Capell (1940, 1952/1953, nd), Kerr (nd)
Textual material:
None
Grammar or sketch grammar:
Capell (1952/1953) contains grammatical notes, and Capell (1940) has some sample verb paradigms.
Material available on the language:
Capell, A. 1940. The classification of languages in north and north-west Australia. Oceania 10. 241-272, 404-433.
_____ .1952/1953. Notes on the Njigina and Warwa tribes, N.W. Australia. Mankind 4. 351-360, 450-496.
_____ .nd. Njigina and Warwa vocabulary. 41pp. typescript. AIAS.
Kerr, N.F. nd. A comparative word-list: Nyigina and neighbouring languages. typescript. AIAS Ms.
Stokes, B. 1978-. Field notes: Nyigina. manuscript. AIAS A3 35.
_____ .1985. The verb from Noonkanbah to Broome: "alternative-prefixing" verbal systems of the West Kimberley. typescript.
Language programme:
None
Language learning material:
None
Literacy material:
None

McGregor, William. 1988 Handbook of Kimberley Languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. © Author.

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledge William McGregor for permission to use his material in AUSTLANG.

Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
William McGregor
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate2
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listLess than 20 pages1
Text CollectionNone0
GrammarSketch grammar (less than 100 pages)2
Audio-visualMore than 103
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 

McGregor, William. 1994 Warrwa. München: Lincom Europa.

Dictionary: 
-
Classification
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)NyulnyulanWarrwa
Dixon (2002)FITZROY RIVER SUBGROUP*WarrwaNjigina Stokes (1982), Hosokawa (1991), McCregor (1994) further dialects: Warrwa, Yawuru (or Yawur), Jukun
Wurm (1994)NyulnyulanWarwa
Walsh (1981)NyulnyulanWarwa
Oates (1975)NjulnjulanWarwa
Wurm (1972)NyulnyulanWarwa
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)NyulNyulanWarwa