K4: Ngumbarl

AIATSIS code: 
K4
AIATSIS reference name: 
Ngumbarl

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Name
ABN name
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ABS name
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Horton name
Ngumbarl
Ethnologue name
-
ISO 639-3 code
-
Tindale name
Ngombal
Thesaurus heading language
Ngumbarl language K4
Thesaurus heading (old)
Ngumbarl language (K4) (WA SE 51-06)
Tindale (1974)
Ngormbal, Ngombaru.
O'Grady et al (1966)
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Glottocode
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Other sources
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Synonyms
Ngombal, Ngormbal, Ngombaru, Ngoombal, Ngormbal Ngormbal, Numbal, Numbanbor, Numbol
Comment
Comments: 
McGregor (2010:209) categorises Ngumbarl as one of the Western Nyulnyulan languages, along with Bardi K15, Jawi K16, Jabirrjabirr K8, Nimanburru K9 and Nyulnyul K13. He contrasts these with the Eastern Nyulnyulan languages, Nyikina K3, Warrwa K10, Yawuru K1 and Jukun K2.
References: 
  • Elkin, A.P. 1933. Totemism in North-Western Australia (The Kimberley Division). Oceania, vol. 3, no. 3, no. 4; vol. 4, no. 1. pp. [257]-296, [435]-481, [54-64].
  • McGregor, William B. 2010. The semantics, pragmatics and evolution of two verbless negative constructions in Nyulnyul. Oceanic Linguistics 49(1):205-232.
  • Stokes, Bronwyn. 1982. A description of Nyigina, a language of the West Kimberley, Western Australia (MFE/B52), Australian National University: PhD. (MFE/B52).
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
WA
Location information: 
Vicinity of Barred Creek; south from Coulomb Point to Willie Creek; inland for about 30 miles (50 km.); at Cape Boileau (Tindale 1974). Willie Creek to Price's Point (Stokes 1984:9).
Maps: 
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Catalogue
Links
Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988): 

Mulyara (A18 ) in Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988).

4.7 Ngumbarl / Ngormbal

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:
Ngombal (Tindale), Ngormbal (AIAS, Capell, Metcalfe, O'Grady, Peile, Oates & Oates), Ngoombal (Bates, Hudson & McConvell), Ngumbarl (Black, Black & Walsh, Kerr, Oates), Ngumbal (Stokes), Ngumbol (Peile)
Classification of the language:
Nyulnyulan family
Identification codes:
AIAS: K4
Oates 1973: 49.1f
Capell: K1
Present number and distribution of speakers:
Few remaining speakers (Oates & Oates 1970, quoting Peile)
Stokes - none known
People who have worked intensively on the language:
Nora Kerr, mid- to late-1960 collected some words, Broome
Fr. Anthony Peile, according to Oates & Oates 1970
Practical orthography:
None in use; the Dampier Land variant of the North Kimberley orthography would be suitable.
Word lists:
Bates (nd), Kerr (nd)
Textual material:
None
Grammar or sketch grammar:
None
Material available on the language:
Bates, D.M. nd. Native vocabularies - Broome Magisterial District. typescript. Section 12, 2E: 1a. ANL-MS365-52/3-51.
Bischofs, P.J. 1908. Die Niol-Niol, ein eingeborenenstamm in Nordwest-Australien. Anthropos 3. 32-40.
Kerr, N.F. nd. A comparative word-list: Nyigina and neighbouring languages. manuscript. AIAS Ms 25.
Peile, A.R. 1965a. [Letter to A.I.A.S.] Beagle Bay Mission, 30 March, 1965. 2pp. AIAS File 64/14, folio 12.
_____ .1965b. [Letter to A.I.A.S.] 28 November, 1965. 2pp. File 64/14, folio 33.
Stokes, B. 1978-. Field notes: Nyigina. manuscript. AIAS A3 35. (A3a;B1).
Language programme:
None
Language learning material:
None
Literacy material:
None

McGregor, William. 1988 Handbook of Kimberley Languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. © Author.

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledge William McGregor for permission to use his material in AUSTLANG.

Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Anthony Peile, Kimberley Language Resource Centre, Mirima Dawang Woorlabgerring Language Centre
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listLess than 20 pages1
Text CollectionNone0
GrammarNone0
Audio-visualLess than 11
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 
-
Classification
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)
Dixon (2002)FITZROY RIVER SUBGROUP*NgumbarlBaardi (or Baard) McGregor (1996), Aklif (1999) further dialects: Djawi, Njul-Njul, Djabirr-Djabirr, Ngumbarl, Nimanburru
Wurm (1994)
Walsh (1981)
Oates (1975)NjulnjulanNgumbarl
Wurm (1972)NyulnyulanNgumbarl (Ngormbal)
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)NyulunyulanNgormbal