E56: Biri^

AIATSIS code: 
E56
AIATSIS reference name: 
Biri^

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Name
Thesaurus heading language
Thesaurus heading people
ABN name
-
ABS name
-
Horton name
Biri
Ethnologue name
Biri
ISO 639-3 code
bzr
Tindale name
Biria
Tindale (1974)
Birigaba, Biriaba, Breeaba, Perenbba, Perembba.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Birigaba, Breeaba
Glottocode
biri1256
Other sources
Breeaba (Hodginson 1886 Burdekin River), Birigaba - people who speak Biri [Breen p.c.] (Terill (1988:70) agrees the use of the term Birigaba.)
Synonyms
Birigaba, Biria, Wiri, Biragaba, Birri Gubba, Biriaba, Breeaba, Perembba, Perenbba
Comment
Comments: 

Biri is the name of a dialect from central Queensland, which has come to be known as a language name for a number of closely related dialects. This language has also been called by another dialect name, Gangulu E40 and belongs to the Mari goup of languages, after the word for 'man'.

The people were called Birigaba and possibly Biriyaba, the latter reflects a placename Briaba (Breen, 2009:219, 223).

Dialects of the Biri language include Yangga E52, Yilba E55, Miyan E50, Wirri E57, Gabulbarra E45, Baradha E48, Baranha E53, Yambina E51, Yetimarala E63, Garaynbal E38, Gangulu E40 and the Brown River language (Breen, 2009, see 2009:234). See also Mandalgu E65 and Wadjigu E39.

 

References: 
  • Breen, Gavan. 2009. The Biri dialects and their neighbours. In Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia. 133(2):219-256.
  • Terrill, Angela. 1998. Biri: Languages of the world 258. München: Lincom Europa.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
QLD
Location information: 

Beale gives the tribal area as the region encompassing Bowern, Ayr, Collinsville, and Nebo. Most sources agree with these, some adding Mackay and Cape Cleveland.

It is generally agreed that the Biri dialect was the language of the people of Bowern River. Tindale agrees with this (Terrill 1998:70).

On Bowen River north to junction with Burdekin River; east to Clarke Range; west to Leichhardt Range; south to Netherdale (Tindale 1974).

The Biri country mapped is for the Biri language not the Biri dialect. It includes the country of other Biri dialects.

 

Maps: 
-
Links
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Anthony Beale, Angela Terrill, Tasaku Tsunoda, Birri-Gubba Wadja Bimbi Aboriginal Corporation
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate0
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Less than 20 pages 1
Text Collection Less than 20 pages 1
Grammar Sketch grammar (less than 100 pages) 2
Audio-visual More than 10 3
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 

Terrill, Angela. 1998. Biri. Munich: Lincom. Beale, Anthony. 1974. A grammar of the Biri language, ms.

Dictionary: 
-
Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)       Biri  
Dixon (2002)   GREATER MARIC GROUP Maric proper subgroup Biri (or Birigaba) Biri* (or Biria, Birigaba) Beale (1974) (note that Terrill 1998 is a publication of some of Beale's materials) further dialects: Gangulu, Wirri (or Widi), Yilba, Baradha, Yambina, Yetimarala, Garanjbal, Yangga
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan Maric   Biri  
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Maric Mari Biri  
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Maric Mari Biri  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Pama-Maric Mari Biria  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Pama-Maric Mari Biria