E79: Ngarahgwal

AIATSIS code: 
E79
AIATSIS reference name: 
Ngarahgwal

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Name
ABN name
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ABS name
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Horton name
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Ethnologue name
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ISO 639-3 code
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Tindale name
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Thesaurus heading language
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Thesaurus heading (old)
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Tindale (1974)
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
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Other sources
Ngarahgwal [Sharpe 1985] Ngarakwal [Ngarakwal Nganduwal Aboriginal Corporation] Ngaraangbal [Creamer, AIATSIS collection no. CREAMER_H02]
Synonyms
Ngara:ngbal, Ngarangbal, Gurgun Mibinyah
Comment
Comments: 
Sharpe coined the name Yugambeh - Bundjalung as a cover term for a group of dialects from north-east New South Wales and south-east Queensland (2005) and produced a dictionary (on CDROM) of Yugambeh - Bundjalung in 2013. The name Ngaraangbal (Ngarahngbal, Ngarahgwal etc) (E79) was used by early writers to refer to Indigenous language(s) from the Gold Coast. Linguists recognise three distinct dialects in this region, designated by Wafer and Lissarrague as Upper Gold Coast (Pimpana language) and Central and Lower Gold Coast (Southport and Burleigh Heads dialects). However, it has not been possible to confirm which variety is also known as Ngarahngwal, or even if Ngarahngwal and Ngarahangbal refer to the same or different dialects (2008:354). Sharpe indicates the name is derived from 'those who say ngarah "what" ' (2001:7). In 1964 Geytenbeek recorded three songs from the late Charlotte Williams Snr and her son Stan Williams at Woodenbong NSW, in Ngaraangbal (E79), which he also wrote as 'Ngarahngbal' and 'Ngara:kwal' (MS 183). These songs are re-presented in Gumnow (MS 1965). The CREAMER_H02 collection (Archive no. 005041) in the AIATSIS audio-visual archive contains a recording of some place names. Oates (1975:212) says that Ngara:ngbal (E79) is considered the dialect O'Grady (and Oates and Oates) wrongly named Arakawal E13, deleting Arakawal. However, the locations of Ngara:ngbal and Arakawal are different. See also: Bundjalung E12; Birihn E72; Casino language E73; Ngarabal E92; Dinggabal E16.1; Galibal E15; Geynyan D36; Gidhabal E14; Mananjahli E76; Minyangbal E18; Nerang Creek language E77; Nganduwal E78; Ngarahgwal E79; Nyangbal E75; Wahlubal E16.2; Wehlubal E80; Wiyabal E16; Wudjebal E96 and Yugambeh E17. Documentation for Bundjalung E12 and / or Yugambeh E17 may be relevant.
References: 
  • Crowley, Terry. 1978. The Middle Clarence dialects of Bandjalang (Includes 1940s Bandjalang grammar by W. E. Smythe): Research and Regional Studies 12. Canberra: AIAS.
  • Geytenbeek, Brian. 1974. Gidabal texts (1963-1967). MS 183.
  • Gumnow, Margaret J. 1984. Aboriginal music of New South Wales : accompanying booklet to five demonstration tapes. MS 1965.
  • Oates, Lynette F. 1975. The 1973 supplement to a revised linguistic survey of Australia. Armidale: Armidale Christian Book Centre.
  • Sharpe, Margaret. 1995. Dictionary of Western Bundjalung : including Gidhabal and Tabulam Bundjalung. Armidale, N.S.W.: Margaret Sharpe, Linguistics Dept. University of New England.
  • Sharpe, Margaret. 2005. Grammar and texts of the Yugambeh-Bundjalung dialect chain in Eastern Australia. München: Lincom Europa.
  • Wafer, Jim, and Amanda Lissarrague. 2008. A handbook of Aboriginal languages of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NSW
Location information: 
On coast from a little south of Tweed Heads north to mouth of Logan River (Oates 1975:211). Gold Coast area (Geytenbeek 1971:1 quoted in Sharpe 2005:3) North east extremity of group; on coast from a little south of Tweed Heads north to mouth of Logan River (BG map) (Oates 1975: 211)
Maps: 
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Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
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People: 
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Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list None 0
Text Collection Less than 20 pages 1
Grammar None 0
Audio-visual Less than 1 1
Manuscript note: 
Grammar: 
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Dictionary: 
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Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)
Dixon (2002)
Wurm (1994)
Walsh (1981)
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Bandjalangic Ngara:ngbal
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Bandjalangic Ngarangbal
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)